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Product Code M2391B1-25g
Price £105 ex. VAT

1,4-Di-tert-butyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene (DDB)

A benchmark redox shuttle for lithium ion battery (LIB) systems.


Specifications | MSDS | Literature and Reviews


2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, CAS number 7323-63-9), an aromatic compound with two methoxy groups at 2,5-positions and two tert-butyl groups at 1,4-positions of the benzene ring, is a very successful benchmark redox shuttle molecule developed for the lithium ion battery (LIB) systems. With two tert-butyl groups, DDB has rigid molecular structure with an outstanding electrochemical reversibility and stability.

DDB provides high-rate overcharge protection of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) based Li-ion cells by a reversible and stable redox reaction at 3.9 V vs. Li/Liand more than 200 cycles of 100% overcharge per cycle at C/2 and 1C rate for LiFePO4 cathode in LIBs.

Despite being a benchmark shuttle, DDB has relatively low solubility in the carbonate electrolyte and the redox potential that is insufficient for 4 V operation of LIBs, due to its low polarity induced from symmetric structure.

General Information


CAS Number 7323-63-9
Chemical Formula C16H26O2
Full Name 1,4-Di-tert-butyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene
Molecular Weight 250.38 g/mol
Synonyms DDB, 2,5-Di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene, 1,4-Di-t-butyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene;
Classification / Family Redox Shuttle, Battery materials, Energy materials, Lithium ion batteries (LLIBs)

Chemical Structure


1,4-Di-tert-butyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene, DDB, CAS 7323-63-9 chemical structure
 1,4-Di-tert-butyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene (DDB), CAS 7323-63-9

Product Details


Purity >99% (GC)
Melting Point 103-104 °C
Appearance White to off-white powder

MSDS Documentation


1,4-Di-tert-butyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene MSDS1,4-Di-tert-butyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene MSDS Sheet

Literature and Reviews


  1. High-Rate Overcharge Protection of LiFePO4-Based Li-Ion Cells Using the Redox Shuttle Additive 2,5-Ditertbutyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene, J. Dahn et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 152 (6), A1283 (2005); DOI 10.1149/1.1906025.
  2. Asymmetric Form of Redox Shuttle Based on 1,4-Di-tert-butyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene, W. Weng et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 160 (10), A1711 (2013); DOI: 10.1149/2.044310jes.
  3. Smart Polymeric Cathode Material with Intrinsic Overcharge Protection Based on a 2,5-Di-tert-butyl- 1,4-dimethoxybenzene Core Structure, Adv. Funct. Mater., 22 (21), 4485-4492 (2012); DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201200458.
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