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Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs)


Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are orderly assembly of ultra-thin monolayers formed on a surface of the substrate directed by either weak physical force or strong chemical covalent bonding, normally through the process of deposition and thermal annealing. SAMs act as an interface, i.e. hole injection monolayer (HIML) between the electrode and the active layer materials in optoelectronic devices.

Serving as hole selective contact layer and alternative to PEDOT:PSS, SAMs improve the device performance of dye-sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and inverted perovskite or polymer solar cells. The following are examples of solar cells device performance engaging different SAMs as hole transport layers:

Device Structure VOC (V) JSC (mA/cm2) FF (%) PCE (%)
ITO/2PACz/Cs0.05(MA0.17FA0.83)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3/C60/BCP/Cu 1.158 21.7 80.91 20.26
ITO/Br-2PACz/Cs0.25FA0.75Sn0.5Pb0.5I3/C60/BCP/Ag 0.81 32.14 74.94 19.51
ITO/MeO-2PACz/MA0.05FA0.95Pb(I0.95Br0.05)3/C60/BCP/Cu 1.12 23.5 80.6 21.2
ITO/MPA-CPA/perovskite/C60/BCP/Ag 1.20 24.8 84.5 25.2
ITO/perovskite (DMAcPA doping)/PC60BM/BCP/Ag 1.187 25.69 84.73 25.86
ITO/4PADCB(CbzNaph)/FA0.8Cs0.2Pb(I0.6Br0.4)3/C60/SnO2/IZO/PEDOT:PSS/FA0.6MA0.3 Cs0.1Sn0.5Pb0.5I3/C60/SnO2/Cu 2.12 15.19 82.6 26.6

Our collection of self-assembled monolayers includes molecules with electron rich carbazole, 9,9-dimethylacridine, 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole, or triphenylamine terminal functional groups, alkyl or cyano-vinyl linkers, and phosphonic or carboxylic acid anchoring groups.

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Resources and Support


Self-assembled monolayer What are Self-Assembled Monolayers?

Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) are well-organised, one molecule thick layers that form on a solid surface. SAM molecules adsorb on a substrate via chemical or physical bonds. They spontaneously organize themselves into ordered structures on the substrate.

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Self-assembled monolayer Deposition of Self-Assembled Monolayers

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are well-organized one molecule thick layers that spontaneously form on a surface. They have a high potential for use in a wide range of applications due to their well-defined structure and properties.

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Self-assembled monolayer Applications of Self-Assembled Monolayers

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are highly organized single layers of molecules that form on a surface. This is driven by the chemisorption of specific functional groups on the SAM molecules that have a strong affinity for a particular surface.

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Self-assembled monolayer Self-Assembled Monolayers in Electronic Devices

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) provide a versatile and cost-effective method for surface modification and the creation of molecular-scale electronic devices. By selecting the appropriate head, spacer and tail group for the SAM molecules the following properties can be adjusted:

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