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PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT Based Polymers


PEDOT:PSS Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate

PEDOT:PSS (or Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate, CAS 155090-83-8) is a transparent conductive polymer. It is a mixture of the ionomer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), carrying positive charges, and polystyrene sulfonate, carrying negative charges. Due to its unique combination of conductivity, transparency, ductility, and ease of processing, PEDOT:PSS has become a benchmark material in thin-film electronic fabrication. There are many types of PEDOT dispersions, including PEDOT:PSS AI 4083 and PEDOT:PSS PH 1000.

In organic light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaics, and perovskite photovoltaics, PEDOT:PSS can be used as an interfacial layer for hole transport. It can also be used as a replacement for transparent conductors such as ITO or FTO. Commonly, it is used in applications where the underlying substrate is flexible.

The properties of PEDOT:PSS vary between dispersions, hence its versatility. The key properties of PEDOT:PSS are its conductivity and the size of its work function. Since PEDOT is conductive and PSS is insulating, the conductivity of the resulting polymer depends on the ratio between the two ionomers and the microstructure of the film. Similarly, a higher presence of PSS at the surface will result in a deeper work function.

PEDOT:PSS is typically available as a water-based emulsion. It is created via the polymerization of PEDOT monomers in a polystyrene sulfonic acid solution. We supply all our PEDOT:PSS solutions in light resistant bottles with temperature indicators.

PEDOT Materials


AI 4083 PEDOT:PSS

AI 4083 PEDOT:PSS

A commonly used form of PEDOT:PSS often used for hole intection and transport layers. Aqueous – Low Conductivity – Deep Work Function – Ideal for interfacial layers in inverted photovoltaic devices (OPVs, PSCs) and organic light emitting diodes.

Price $288 ex. VAT
PH 1000 PEDOT:PSS

PH 1000 PEDOT:PSS

Another commonly used form of PEDOT:PSS used for semi-transparent conductive layers. Aqueous – High Conductivity – High Transparency – Ideal for interfacial layers in standard architecture OPVS, OLEDs and transparent electrodes.

Price $288 ex. VAT
HTL Solar PEDOT:PSS

HTL Solar PEDOT:PSS

PEDOT:PSS for solution processing on surfaces that are difficult to coat with aqueous solutions. Aqueous – Increased Wettability – Relatively High Conductivity – Ideal for inverted architecture OPVs, or other thin films with wetting difficulties.

Price $288 ex. VAT
HTL Solar 3 PEDOT Complex

HTL Solar 3 PEDOT Complex

Toluene-based PEDOT complex with alternative counter ionomer to PSS, increasing wettability. Non-Aqueous – Toluene Solvent – Low Conductivity – Ideal for use in perovskite solar cells or with materials that are dissolved in or degraded by water.

Price $325 ex. VAT
F HC Solar PEDOT:PSS

F HC Solar PEDOT:PSS

Specialised PEDOT:PSS formulation developed especially to improve deposition on solar cells. Aqueous – High Conductivity – Low Contact Angle – Ideal for used in as hole transport layers in solar cells (such as organic photovoltaics).

Price $363 ex. VAT
CH 8000 PEDOT:PSS

CH 8000 PEDOT:PSS

PEDOT:PSS formulation with very low conductivity, even compared to Al 4083 PEDOT:PSS. Aqueous – Very Low Conductivity – Deep Work Function. Used as a standard hole injection layer (HIL), often as a replacement for more conductive Al 4083 in blue and white Polymer LEDs.

Price $275 ex. VAT
S V4 STAB PEDOT:PSS

S V4 STAB PEDOT:PSS

PEDOT:PSS dispersed in glycols to form a paste for screen printing and large scale coating. Glycol suspension – highly transparent – High Conductivity – Used for transparent electrodes and pressure sensors such as wearable printed pressure sensors and touch panels.

Price $288 ex. VAT
P JET (OLED) PEDOT:PSS

P JET (OLED) PEDOT:PSS

PEDOT:PSS dispersion with antistatic properties and low acidity, designed for inkjet printing. Aqueous - Neutral pH – Low Conductivity - Ideal for improving performance and stability of OLED and PLED devices, and applications in OFET backplanes.

Price $350 ex. VAT
HIL 8 PEDOT Complex

HIL 8 PEDOT Complex

Butyl benzoate-based PEDOT dispersion with PSEBS as an alternative counter ionomer to PSS. Non-aqueous – Low Conductivity – Deep Work Function. Developed as a hole injection layer (HIL) material for OLEDs, OPVs, and perovskite solar cells, which are not compatible with aqueous solutions.

Price $388 ex. VAT

PEDOT:PSS from Ossila was featured in the high-impact paper (IF 30.85)

PEDOT:PSS from Ossila was featured in the high-impact paper (IF 30.85), A Wearable Supercapacitor Based on Conductive PEDOT:PSS-Coated Cloth and a Sweat Electrolyte, L. Manjakkal et al., Adv. Mater., 1907254 (2020); DOI: 10.1002/adma.201907254.

Choose the Right PEDOT


All PEDOT:PSS products in a family photo

Choosing the right PEDOT product for you could be a difficult task. Each has a different base solvent, conductivity, viscosity, and even composition. At Ossila, we have a range of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:Complex products. They are available in different solvents for applications in OLED, OPV, and sensors, and are suitable for different deposition methods, i.e. spin coating, inkjet printing and screen printing.

PEDOT Products by Solvent Base
Water

Al 4083

PH 1000

HTL Solar

F HC Solar

CH 8000

P JET (OLED)

Toluene HTL Solar 3
Butyl benzoate HIL 8
Glycols (Paste) S V4 STAB
PEDOT Products by Deposition Method

Coating

(Spin coating, spray coating, slot die coating, doctor-blade coating, dip coating)

Al 4083

PH 1000

HTL Solar

HTL Solar 3

F HC Solar

CH 8000

HIL 8

S V4 STAB

Inkjet Printing P JET (OLED) (pH neutral)
Screen Printing S V4 STAB
PEDOT Products by Applications
OLED

Al 4083

PH 1000

CH 8000

HIL 8

P JET (OLED) (pH neutral)

OPV

(Polymer solar cells, perovskite solar cells, organic solar cells)

Al 4083

PH 1000

HTL Solar

HTL Solar 3

F HC Solar

Sensor

HTL Solar

F HC Solar

S V4 STAB

Transparent Electrodes

PH 1000

S V4 STAB

PEDOT:PSS Applications


PEDOT:PSS is the subject of a considerable amount of research and is used for a range of applications within thin-film electronic fabrication. This includes perovskite photovoltaics, organic photovoltaics, organic light emitting diodes, transparent conductors, organic electrochemical transistors, flexible electronics, thermoelectric generators, supercapacitors, and energy storage.

Perovskite Photovoltaics

PEDOT:PSS has been used as a hole extraction material in inverted devices. This material facilitates the extraction of charge carriers at the interface between the transparent conductive oxide and the active perovskite layer. Inverted perovskite devices using PEDOT:PSS typically show lower hysteresis than standard architecture devices. In addition, recent work on standard architecture devices shows that the toluene-based PEDOT:PSS can be used as a cheap alternative to Spiro-OMeTAD.

Organic Photovoltaics

PEDOT:PSS has long been used as a standard material in device fabrication. It has been extensively used with materials such as P3HT and PCDTBT to form the backbone of fundamental research into polymer solar cells. In addition, PEDOT:PSS is being used in combination with state-of-the-art organic photovoltaic materials to push new efficiency limits.

Organic Light Emitting Diodes

The use of PEDOT:PSS in organic light emitting diodes, as a well-established standard hole injection material, has been widespread for over a decade. Recent work still uses PEDOT:PSS due to its deep work function. This allows for efficient charge injection into white emitting polymers as well as host materials for thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials.

Transparent Conductors

PEDOT:PSS is a potential replacement for expensive transparent metal oxides, such as ITO and FTO. Its effectiveness in both organic photovoltaic and perovskite photovoltaic devices has been demonstrated. In addition, in combination with metallic grid structures, it is possible to achieve sheet resistances comparable to metallic films.

Substrate surfaces should be prepared before the deposition of PEDOT:PSS to ensure that they are clean. This can be done using deionised (DI) water, Hellmanex III, isopropyl alcohol and a UV ozone cleaner. Once the surface is ready, a PEDOT:PSS thin film can be formed using a spin coater.

Getting Started with PEDOT:PSS


Surface Preparation

To ensure a uniform coating, it is important that the surface of your substrate is as clean as possible before you begin the deposition process. To prepare a substrate for PEDOT:PSS deposition:

  1. Choose a substrate (FTO glass, ITO glass, or silicon) and place it in a substrate rack.
  2. Sonicate your substrate for 5 minutes in hot (70°C) DI water with 1% Hellmanex III.
  3. Dump-rinse twice in boiling DI water.
  4. Sonicate your substrate for 5 minutes in isopropyl alcohol.
  5. Dump-rinse twice in boiling DI water.
  6. Dry your substrate using filtered compressed gas.
  7. Place the substrate into a UV ozone cleaner and leave for 10 minutes.

UV Ozone Cleaner

  • Large Cleaning Area
  • Powerful UV Lamp
  • No Sample Damage

Buy Online £2500

Thin Film Deposition of PEDOT:PSS

For the deposition of thin films of PEDOT:PSS on a freshly prepared surface, we recommend using a vacuum-free spin coater and following this five-step process:

  1. Filter your PEDOT:PSS solution through a 0.45 µm PES filter (or hydrophobic PTFE filter for HTL Solar 3) into an amber vial.
  2. Preheat a hot plate to 120 °C.
  3. Place your freshly prepared substrate into an Ossila Spin Coater and set to the desired spin speed.
  4. The substrates should be spun until the films are dry; for PEDOT:PSS films this is typically >30 seconds.
  5. Once the spin coating has finished, place the samples on a hotplate for 15 minutes to fully dry.

For speeds below 1000 rpm we recommend static spin coating. For higher speeds, dynamic spin coating can be used.

Spin Coater

  • Vacuum-Free Design
  • Compact Size
  • No Substrate Warping

Available From £2100

Obtaining a Uniform Coating

The coating quality of the PEDOT:PSS is dependent on several factors. These include the PEDOT formulation you are using, the deposition technique, the surface you are depositing onto, and the cleanliness of the surface. Ideally, the film should be highly uniform across the entire surface although variations at the ends of your sample can occur due to edge effects.

Due to the wetting conditions of the PEDOT formulation on the surface, the coating may not always be uniform. If this occurs there are several things that can be done. The first is to ensure that the surface of your sample is clean, if possible use a combination of solvent cleaning steps and UV ozone or oxygen plasma treatments to ensure a completely clean surface. If this does not improve the quality of the surface, secondary solvents can be added. For AI 4083 and PH 1000, the addition of approximately 10% isopropanol can improve the wetting on surfaces.

Frequently Asked Questions


Literatures


Resources and Support


Making OLED and OPV solar cells: Quickstart Guide Making OLED and OPV solar cells: Quickstart Guide

Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) or organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) can be easily manufactured using Ossila’s pre-patterned ITO substrates and a few simple spin coating and evaporating steps.

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Contact Angle Measurements of Surface Wetting Contact Angle Measurements of Surface Wetting

Surface wetting occurs when a droplet spreads out over a surface, such that its contact angle is below 90°. When the droplet spreads out completely, this angle will be 0°, and 'complete wetting' will have occurred.

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Spin Coating: Complete Guide to Theory and Techniques Spin Coating: Complete Guide to Theory and Techniques

Spin coating is a common technique for applying thin films to substrates. When a solution of a material and a solvent is spun at high speeds, the centripetal force and the surface tension of the liquid together create an even covering.

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OPV and OLED Fabrication Guide OPV and OLED Fabrication Guide

Ossila’s pre-patterned ITO substrates are used for a wide variety of teaching and research devices (both organic and inorganic) where a high-quality ITO surface is required.

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The Ultimate Guide to Making Perovskite Solar Cells The Ultimate Guide to Making Perovskite Solar Cells

Over the past 10 years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have achieved record efficiencies of 25.5% single junction solar cells (as of 20211) and these efficiencies are rising impressively.

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Perovskite Fabrication Perovskite Fabrication

This guide describes our recommended fabrication routine for perovskite solar cells using Ossila I101 Perovskite Precursor Ink which is designed to be used with a bottom ITO/PEDOT:PSS anode and a top PC70BM/Ca/Al cathode.

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Guide to make efficient air processed perovskite devices Guide to make efficient air processed perovskite devices

This video provides a guide to making efficient air-processed perovskite devices.

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Solution Based OFETs Solution Based OFETs

This guide describes the fabrication of evaporation-free OFETs using the Ossila pre-patterned ITO OFET substrates (product codes S161 & S162).

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