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Materials Science Resources

Ossila Materials Science Resources

As part of our mission to help researchers to jump-start their projects and to help our customers get started with our products, we’ve put together a number of written guides, application notes, system overviews, videos, literature reviews and articles. These resources cover the underpinning theory behind our products and their intended applications. In addition, they include a wealth of practical user advice which we have learned from decades of research experience. Learn about how to use and maintain your glove box, or the theory behind inert atmosphere processing and our glove box design principles.

Browse by resource type or product to find what you are looking for or alternatively, navigate to a field-specific page to browse the resources relating to your particular area of interest.

If you need further help with one of our products or advice on their applications, please feel free to contact us to be put in touch with a member of our technical support team. Alternatively, if you do not require a response but would like to make a suggestion, we welcome all comments via our feedback form.

Looking for software and drivers or MSDS documents? Click the 'software' or 'MSDS' link in the top right-hand corner of the relevant product page.

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Cyclic Voltammetry Basic Principles, Theory and Setup Cyclic Voltammetry Basic Principles, Theory and Setup

Cyclic voltammetry is an electrochemical technique for measuring the current response of a redox active solution to a linearly cycled potential sweep between two or more set values.

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The Ultimate Guide to Making Perovskite Solar Cells The Ultimate Guide to Making Perovskite Solar Cells

Over the past 10 years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have achieved record efficiencies of 25.5% single junction solar cells (as of 20211) and these efficiencies are rising impressively.

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Cyclic Voltammetry Applications and Uses Cyclic Voltammetry Applications and Uses

Cyclic voltammetry is a versatile electrochemical method with a range of different applications. In cyclic voltammetry, each successful forwards and backwards potential sweep produces a 'duck-shaped' plot known as a cyclic voltammogram.

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solvothermal/hydrothermal synthesis of MOF How to Make Metal-Organic Frameworks

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are made by connecting metal centers with organic linkers through coordination bonds. The process of creating MOFs plays a crucial role in crystal structure formation.

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perovskite crystal structure What is a Perovskite Solar Cell

A perovskite solar cell is a thin film photovoltaic device. In these devices, perovskites absorb sunlight and convert it into electrical energy. Certain perovskites have fundamental properties which make them excellent at this. In some ways, perovskites are even better than the materials used in current solar cells.

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Semiconductor Chips How Semiconductors are Made

Semiconductors are amongst the smallest and most detailed technologies that exist. One thumb-sized chip can contain billions of transistors – the miniature units used for conducting and switching electrical current.

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IoT Devices : Edge Devices, Hub Devices and Cloud Internet of Things: Semiconductors and Organic Electronics

The Internet of Things (IoT), also known as the Internet of Everything (IoE), essentially extends the power of the internet beyond computing devices to other devices, processes and environments.

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Troubleshooting Cyclic Voltammetry and Voltammograms Troubleshooting Cyclic Voltammetry and Voltammograms

Cyclic voltammetry is a powerful and versatile electrochemical technique. With modern potentiostats and software packages, the method is relatively straight-forward to perform. Despite this apparent simplicity, there are still a number of things that can go wrong, particularly when setting up the electrochemical cell.

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Potentiostat Working Principles and Fundamentals Potentiostat Working Principles and Fundamentals

Potentiostats are voltage sources that vary their output potential in response to changes in the resistance across the circuit.

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What is a Glove Box? What is a Glove Box?

Glove boxes create a stable, sealed environment for handling hazardous materials, chemicals, or samples that react readily with air. Samples can be transferred into the glove box via the glove box antechamber, and glove box gloves can be used to manipulate the contents of the glove box.

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What is a Glove Box? How to Choose a Laboratory Glove Box

When buying a glove box, it's important that you choose the most suitable system for your specific lab and experiments. The first question that you should be asking yourself when looking for a glove box is what do I need?

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Glove Box installation Glove Box Installation

The Ossila Glove Box is designed to be easy to install and maintain, and is suitable for most laboratories. Its small footprint and quick set up also means that it is relatively portable and can be conveniently transferred between labs as required.

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Inert Gases Air Free Techniques

Air free techniques are essential for the handling and storage of materials that are unstable when exposed to air. Compounds are defined as unstable if they react with an element in air, often moisture or oxygen.

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Glove Box Antechamber Air Sensitive Compounds

There are many reasons that a compound would be sensitive to air. The magnitude of an air-sensitive material's reaction to oxygen or moisture can vary dependent on the material properties.

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Positive pressure glove box with gloves inflated Glove Box Pressure: Positive or Negative?

Glove boxes are essential tools for creating controlled atmospheres where you can handle hazardous or air sensitive materials. They can be maintained at positive pressure or negative pressure.

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Glove Box System Configuration Screen Glove Box Standard Operating Procedure

Working safely within an inert laboratory glove box requires care and co-operation from everyone who uses it. For this reason, we recommend outlining a standard operating procedure for your laboratory.

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Inert Gases Inert Gases

Inert gases are gases which are chemically inactive, so will not undergo chemical reactions with many materials. Inert gases are used for many purposes in a wide range of industries - for example in welding, chemical processing, and as filler gases in light sources.

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Argon vs Nitrogen for Glove Box Argon vs Nitrogen for Glove Box

Argon and nitrogen are both unreactive gases which can be used to create an inert environment within a glove box. Both gases will efficiently displace air within a confined space, are easy to store and will not react with most materials. Therefore, both N2 and Ar can create a glove box environment with very low moisture and oxygen levels.

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Glove Box installation Glove Box Maintenance And Troubleshooting

The Ossila Glove Box (or glovebox) uses automatic purging and programmable leak tests making it easy to maintain an inert environment. However, there are a number of steps that you as the glove box user can take to ensure that the inert atmosphere remains intact.

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Glove Box (Glovebox) Uses, Leaks, and Design Glove Box (Glovebox) Uses, Leaks, and Design

Scientific glove boxes create a sealed environment for work that involves hazardous materials or samples that react with air. The main chamber of such a glove box is generally filled with an inert gas, usually Nitrogen.

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Glove Box Leaks Glove Box Leaks

The most common cause of glove box leaks is human error, either as a result of not following operating procedures correctly or from accidental damage. In terms of physical damage, the most likely puncture points will be the glove box gloves or the seals around the antechamber doors.

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How to Replace Glove Box Gloves How to Replace Glove Box Gloves

Glove box gloves must be flexible and relatively thin. This allows for movement within the main chamber. The gloves will be the most vulnerable exposure point to air and moisture in your glove box as small holes can easily occur.

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COSHH form templateHow to Write a COSHH Form

The COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health) form is a health and safety document that is written for individual substances.

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What is Laminar Flow? What is Laminar Flow?

Laminar flow is a concept in fluid dynamics which describes the smooth and orderly movement of a fluid (liquid or gas). In laminar flow, fluid particles move in predictable, parallel layers with minimal mixing between layers.

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Vertical vs Horizontal Laminar Flow Hood Vertical vs Horizontal Laminar Flow Hood

Laminar flow hoods (LFH) are essential tools used in scientific and industrial settings to create a controlled, clean environment for various applications.

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Laminar Flow Hood vs Fume Hood Laminar Flow Hood vs Fume Hood

In lab environments, both laminar flow hoods and fume hoods operate to provide workspaces with enhanced ventilation and filtration mechanisms.

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Biological Safety Cabinet vs Laminar Flow Hood Biological Safety Cabinet vs Laminar Flow Hood

When working in laboratories, ensuring a safe and clean environment is paramount. Biological Safety Cabinets and Laminar Flow Hoods are two units that can be used to achieve these standards.

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Agar growth plates inside a laminar flow hood Laminar Flow Hood vs Glove Box

Laminar flow hoods and glove boxes both provide controlled environments to be used in laboratory settings, but they have distinct differences in terms of their features and functions within the laboratory.

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How Does A Laminar Flow Hood Work? How Does A Laminar Flow Hood Work?

In settings and applications where a clean environment is essential, laminar flow hoods (LFHs) are a vital tool. Use of a LFH ensures a contamination-free workspace by generating a continuous flow of clean air to remove airborne particles.

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Getting Started with the Laminar Flow Hood Getting Started with the Laminar Flow Hood

Ossila laminar flow hoods are designed for effortless setup, user-friendly operation, and efficient control. This short video guide shows you how to get started with your new equipment.

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Getting Started with the Laminar Flow HoodOverview of the Ossila Horizontal Laminar Flow Hood

The Ossila Flow Hood has been meticulously crafted to provide a sterile environment with a compact and efficient design. HEPA filters can be easily installed and replaced. Its benchtop design makes it perfect for bench or small-scale experiments.

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Position baffle on plenum with motor facing forwards Assembling the Horizontal Laminar Flow Hood

Our laminar flow hoods arrive flat-packed. You can assemble this as a vertical or a horizontal laminar flow hood depending on what better suits your research. You can also switch between configurations for different uses or if your needs change.

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HEPA Filter: What Is It and How Does It Work? HEPA Filter: What Is It and How Does It Work?

The acronym HEPA stands for High Efficiency Particulate Air, and these filters boast an exceptional ability to achieve a high standard of particle filtration.

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HEPA Filter Size Chart HEPA Filter Size Chart

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are designed to efficiently remove airborne particles and contaminants, making them indispensable tools in laboratories and cleanroom facilities.

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ULPA vs HEPA Filters: Which One is Right for You? ULPA vs HEPA Filters: Which One is Right for You?

Ultra-Low Particulate Air (ULPA) and High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are both used in laminar flow hoods to remove particles from incoming air.

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Laminar Flow Hood Cleaning Procedure Laminar Flow Hood Cleaning Procedure

Regular and thorough cleaning of your laminar flow hood allows you to reliably conduct your experiments without risk of contamination.

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UV Sterilization UV Sterilization

Ultraviolet (UV) sterilization is a disinfecting technique that uses UV light to kill or damage microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

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Air Flow in Laminar Flow Hoods Air Flow in Laminar Flow Hoods

Laminar flow must be achieved to guarantee air flow will move in a single direction and ensure optimal performance of the hood. This is needed to achieve the clean air functions listed above.

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Spin Coating: Complete Guide to Theory and Techniques Spin Coating: Complete Guide to Theory and Techniques

Spin coating is a common technique for applying thin films to substrates. When a solution of a material and a solvent is spun at high speeds, the centripetal force and the surface tension of the liquid together create an even covering.

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The Ossila Spin Coater Which Spin Coater Features Do I Need?

Depending on your application and scale of film production, these features can be both beneficial and damaging to your final films. Before investing in a new spin coater, it is crucial to consider the different features and specifications available in the market.

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The Ossila Spin Coater How to Spin Coat to the Very Edge of a Substrate

This video demonstrates the static dispense spin coating method using 45 degree angle to avoid touching the edge of the substrate whilst moving the ink.

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PEDOT being added to a spin coater Getting Started with the Ossila Spin Coater

Spin coating is a widely used and versatile technique for depositing materials onto substrates with accurate and controllable film thicknesses.

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Spin coating coated inside and outside a laminar flow hood - films have less and more defects respectively. Spin Coating in Laminar Flow Hood

To achieve successful thin-film deposition via spin coating, it is crucial to minimize particle contamination. A vertical laminar flow hood can create a contamination free environment.

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Dip Coating: Practical Guide to Theory and Troubleshooting Dip Coating: Practical Guide to Theory and Troubleshooting

Dip coating is a simple and effective technique which is commonly used in manufacturing across a wide range of different industries. Within research and development, it has become an important coating method for the fabrication of thin films using a purpose-built dip coater.

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Ossila Dip Coater Getting Started with the Ossila Dip Coater

Dip coating is one of the most widely-used coating processes in industry and academia for producing thin films. To create a film, the substrate is first lowered into, and then withdrawn from, the solution.

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Linear Sweep Voltammetry: Introduction and Applications Linear Sweep Voltammetry: Introduction and Applications

Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) is a simple electrochemical technique. The method is similar to cyclic voltammetry, but rather than linearly cycling over the potential range in both directions, linear sweep voltammetry involves only a single linear sweep from the lower potential limit to the upper potential limit.

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Thin Film Deposition: Comparing Coating Methods Thin Film Deposition: Comparing Coating Methods

When it comes to depositing highly-uniform wet thin films, there are many different solution-processing techniques capable of producing high-quality films at low cost.

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Contact Angle: A Guide to Theory and Measurement Contact Angle: A Guide to Theory and Measurement

This guide will explain what a contact angle is and how it is measured. It will also show you how the Ossila Contact Angle Goniometer works and how to get the best measurement results.

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What is Surface Energy? Formula & Definition What is Surface Energy? Formula & Definition

Surface free energy is a measure of the excess energy present at the surface of a material, in comparison to at its bulk. It can be used to describe wetting and adhesion between materials.

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UV Ozone Theory and Application UV Ozone Theory and Application

UV ozone cleaning is a photo-sensitized oxidation process in which organic molecules in their excited state chemically react with ozone molecules, resulting in the cleaving of bonds and the dissociation of molecules from the surface.

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Contact Angle Measurements of Surface Wetting Contact Angle Measurements of Surface Wetting

Surface wetting occurs when a droplet spreads out over a surface, such that its contact angle is below 90°. When the droplet spreads out completely, this angle will be 0°, and 'complete wetting' will have occurred.

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Solution ingress Contact Angle Goniometer Applications

A contact angle goniometer is an instrument that measures the contact angle of a droplet on a surface. This is a useful, indirect measurement of surface wetting.

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Contact Angle Measurements on Uneven Surfaces Contact Angle Measurements on Uneven Surfaces

In this guide we will use the Ossila Contact Angle software to measure a droplet on an uneven surface.

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Droplet Surface Tension How to Measure Surface Tension with the Goniometer

Video guide to measure the surface tension of a droplet.

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Contact Angle How to Measure Contact Angles with the Goniometer

Video guide to measure the contact angles of droplets on a surface.

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How to Set Up and Use the Ossila Syringe Pump How to Set Up and Use the Ossila Syringe Pump

With no external dependencies, the Ossila Syringe Pump is quick and easy to set up and use.

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Syringe Pumps Explained: Types of Syringe Pump Syringe Pumps Explained: Types of Syringe Pump

Syringe pumps, or syringe drivers, are motorised devices that accurately control the movement of a fluid from a syringe by mechanically inserting or retracting the plunger. Syringe pumps feature stepper motors which can accurately move a platform attached to the plunger of a syringe.

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Syringe pump user interface Key Features of Ossila Syringe Pumps

Syringe pumps are commonly used in scientific research for precise and controlled delivery of fluids during experiments. They can be utilised for various applications in chemistry, biology, biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, and medical research.

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How do Syringe Pumps Work? How do Syringe Pumps Work?

Syringe pumps are electromechanical devices which are designed to convert rotational motion to linear motion. This linear motion can then be used to drive the plunger of a syringe and deliver a precise amount of solution.

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Syringe pump flow rate depends on the diameter of your syringe vs the velocity of plunger movement Syringe Pump Flow Rate

The flow rate for a syringe pump refers to the rate at which a fluid is dispensed or withdrawn from a syringe using a syringe pump. It is typically measured in volume per unit of time.

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Syringe Pump Accuracy and Precision Syringe Pump Accuracy and Precision

Syringe pumps provide precise control over the movement and delivery of fluids and can be incorporated into a wide range of experimental setups to ensure that any work done is reproducible and accurate.

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Syringe Pump Troubleshooting Syringe Pump Troubleshooting

When auto dispensing solvents, droplets are sometimes dispensed after the syringe pump has stopped. The cause of solution dripping can be due to several factors.

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What is a Spectrometer? Types and Uses What is a Spectrometer? Types and Uses

A spectrometer is a device that measures a continuous, non-discrete physical characteristic by first separating it into a spectrum of its constituent components.

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How Does a Spectrometer Work? Principles Explained How Does a Spectrometer Work? Principles Explained

Optical spectrometers take light and separate it by wavelength to create a spectra which shows the relative intensity of each. This basic principle has a wide range of applications and uses.

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Spectrometer Optics Spectrometer Optics

Spectrometers can be designed and built using a number of different optical configurations. Careful choice of components and configuration can avoid aberrations, which result in distorted or blurred spectra.

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UV-Vis spectroscopy troubleshooting UV-Vis Spectroscopy Troubleshooting

It can be incredibly frustrating if you encounter a problem while performing UV-Vis spectroscopy, and usually causes an unnecessary delay.

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UV-Vis spectroscopy errors UV-Vis Spectroscopy Errors

Like any analytical technique, spectrometers are subject to error, including dark noise, stray light, and spectral bandwidth.

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Excitons: An Introduction Excitons: An Introduction

When an electron is excited into a higher energy state, either through absorption of a photon or another excitation method, this creates a positively charged space in the lower energy leel known as a "hole."

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The AM1.5 Spectrum The AM1.5 Spectrum

Solar irradiance varies depending on where you are in the world. This is because of a combination of local atmospheric conditions and geometric considerations.

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The Solar Spectrum The Solar Spectrum

The purpose of a solar simulator is to recreate the sunlight received on Earth. This is easier said than done as sunlight starts its journey in complex nuclear reactions in the sun's core, and is modified on it's journey to us through interactions with the Earth's atmosphere.

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Radiometry and Photometry Radiometry and Photometry

Light can be measured either photometrically (only light visible to the human eye is considered) or radiometrically (also considers the energy in the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum).

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What are Flexible Solar Cells? What are Flexible Solar Cells?

New developments in solar cell technology have enabled the realisation of flexible solar cells, the applications of which can be utilized in more imaginative ways than ever before.

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Solar Simulator Design, Working Principles & Optics Solar Simulator Design, Working Principles & Optics

A solar simulator has several components that help to simulate the solar spectrum uniformly for a defined test area. The most important part of the several components is the light source, however the other components ensure the light source outputs the solar spectrum correctly.

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How to Set Up a Solar Simulator Light Source How to Set Up a Solar Simulator Light Source

The solar simulator light source is compact, lightweight and can be easily installed in any lab using adjustable height stand provided with it.

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Automated Solar Simulator Assembly Automated Solar Simulator Assembly

This system was designed to be easy to use, and effortless to assemble. This video and subsequent guide will demonstrate how easy setting up your testing lab can be with the Ossila Automated Solar Cell Testing Bundle.

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How to Check Solar Simulator Calibration How to Check Solar Simulator Calibration

It is important to ensure that your solar simulator is outputting a consistent spectral output. Different solar simulators will have different bulb lifetimes.

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Solar Simulator Classification and Calibration Solar Simulator Classification and Calibration

Solar simulators must be evaluated according to one of the three standards, and comply with the specifications set out within.

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Solar Simulator Irradiance and Spectral Mismatch Solar Simulator Irradiance and Spectral Mismatch

Solar simulators generally attempt to replicate the standard AM1.5G spectrum which has a total integrated irradiance of 1000.4 W/m2 over the wavelength range of 280 nm – 4000 nm.

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Solar Cell Testing & Characterization Solar Cell Testing & Characterization

One main application of solar simulators is to test solar cell devices and modules. To characterise how solar cells will perform in the real world, it is vital that you use a solar source that mimics the suns spectrum well. You could of course use actual sunlight, but this is an uncontrollable variable.

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Measuring J-V Curves with Ossila Solar Cell Testing Equipment Measuring J-V Curves with Ossila Solar Cell Testing Equipment

When it comes to testing the performance of solar cells, accurate measurements and reliable equipment are essential. If you are conducting research into PV materials, understanding how to measure and interpret J-V curves is crucial in assessing device performance

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Analyzing and Improving Low Device Metrics: FF, VOC and JSC Analyzing and Improving Low Device Metrics: FF, VOC and JSC

Anaylzing key device metrics such as fill factor (FF), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and power conversion efficiency (PCE), can help you find potential issues with your solar cell devices

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Solar Simulator Light Sources Solar Simulator Light Sources

Choosing the right light source for your solar simulator is one the most important decisions to make when setting up a PV testing laboratory

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Writing a research paperHow To Write A Research Paper

A research paper is an academic document that involves analysis, interpretation, and argumentation derived from independent research. Unlike academic essays, research papers tend to be lengthier and more intricate, assessing both writing proficiency and scholarly research abilities. Crafting a research paper entails showcasing a deep understanding of the topic, interacting with diverse sources, and offering an original perspective to the discourse. Our guide will guide you through writing individual sections from abstract to conclusion.

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How to give a great presentation How To Give A Great Presentation

In the world of science, sharing your research findings is significant. Whether you are talking about it in person, putting up a poster, or writing it down, getting the word out is important for moving science forward and getting people talking.

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Optical Spectroscopy Optical Spectroscopy

Optical spectroscopy (or UV-Vis spectroscopy) is a versatile and non-invasive technique that can be used to study a wide range of materials.

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Light Sources for Spectroscopy Light Sources for Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy can be performed using a range of different light sources. These can typically be categorised as being either monochromatic or broadband.

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Jablonski Diagrams Jablonski Diagrams

Jablonski diagrams are the simplest way to the transitions between electronic and vibrational states. The representative energy levels are arranged with energy on the vertical axis and vary horizontally according to energy state multiplicity.

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Python for Spectroscopy, Spectra Data Visualization Python for Spectroscopy | Spectra Data Visualization

Optical spectroscopy data can be processed faster and more consistently using programming tools such as Python. This is a step-by-step guide of how researchers process multiple spectra that were taken using the Ossila Optical Spectrometer. The code in this guide is designed for the Ossila Optical Spectrometer.

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Plotting I-V Curves using Python Plotting I-V Curves using Python

Data can be easily plotted using the following Python code to plot data using Pandas DataFrame.Just copy and paste the code below into your Python virtual environment and start plotting.

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What is Spectroscopy? Definition and Types What is Spectroscopy? Definition and Types

Spectroscopy is an invaluable technique used to study the interaction between radiative energy and matter. Different types of radiative energy used in spectroscopy include electrons, neutrons, ions, and acoustic waves.

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History of Spectroscopy History of Spectroscopy

The history of spectroscopy is a rarely told story, though it is a fascinating one that has profoundly shaped modern science. The research spans three centuries. This history takes us from age-old curiosities over the nature of light, to discoveries about the solar system and chemical elements and their structures.

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Beer Lambert Law Beer Lambert Law

The Beer-Lambert Law is a fundamental principle in spectroscopy. Optical spectrometers can quantify the absorption of light by a sample. Using the Beer-Lambert law, you can use these absorbance measurements to easily measure and monitor the concentration of different materials within a solution.

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Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

Both fluorescence and phosphorescence are types of photoluminescence. Photoluminescence refers to radiative emissions where the absorbance of a photon is followed by the emission of a lower energy photon. The main empirical difference between fluorescence and phosphorescence is the time in between absorbance and the emission of photons.

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Blazed Gratings Blazed Gratings

The blazed diffraction grating is a type of grating that has a "sawtooth" profile. Blazed diffraction gratings will maximise the grating efficiency in one desired diffraction order at a specific wavelength, while other orders are minimised.

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Thin Film Spectroscopy: Setup and Measurement Thin Film Spectroscopy: Setup and Measurement

This article contains some advice from our researchers that should help you get started taking optical spectroscopy measurements of thin films.

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Measuring Thin Film Fluorescence Measuring Thin Film Fluorescence

To measure the fluorescence of a thin film, you will need an optical spectrometer, a fixed sample holder and a high energy light source (such as a UV laser or the Ossila UV light source). We also recommend using optical fiber cables between modular elements to reduce the attenuation of your signal.

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Optical Fiber Spectroscopy Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

Optical fibers (or fiber optic cables) are cables which transmit light efficiently along an extremely thin glass (silica) or plastic fiber. Light travels down the cable due to total internal reflection.

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Electroluminescence Electroluminescence

Electroluminescence (EL) is the generation of light through the radiative recombination of holes and electrons which have been injected into the material from cathode and anode contacts. The charge carriers are injected into the material due to an applied bias over the cathode and anode. These cathode and anodes are orientated opposite each other.

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Spectroscopy For Organic Electronics Spectroscopy For Organic Electronics

The different types of spectroscopy can be categorised by either the application it is used for or by type of radiative energy employed. The application of spectroscopic methods in organic (carbon-based) chemistry and organic electronics is known as organic spectroscopy.

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Absorption Spectroscopy Absorption Spectroscopy

In absorption spectroscopy, the intensity of light absorbed by a sample is measured as a function of wavelength. This can provide important information about the electronic structure of an atom or molecule.

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Can Absorbance be Negative? Can Absorbance be Negative?

You should not be measuring negative absorbance values for any sample. Absorbance measurements come from transmission measurements where light that passes through your sample is collected by the spectrometer (or spectrophotometer) and compared to a reference spectrum.

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Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Photoluminescence Spectroscopy

Photoluminescence is luminescence resulting from photoexcitation. In other words, photoluminescence is when a material emits light following the absorption of energy from incident light from another light source.

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Measuring BODIPY Fluorescence with UV Vis Spectroscopy Measuring BODIPY Fluorescence with UV Vis Spectroscopy

BODIPY is an organic fluorophore with impressive fluorescent quantum yield, small stokes shift and impressive chemical and photostability. These are often used in biological labelling and as an organic fluorescent dye.

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film with and without full coverage Sample Preparation for UV-Vis Spectroscopy

When done correctly, UV-Vis (or optical) spectroscopy can be a powerful technique which can reveal intricate details about the molecular structure and optical properties of a sample. However, without well prepared samples, the results can be not only challenging to interpret but also potentially deceptive.

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Fluorescence Quenching and Non-Radiative Relaxation Fluorescence Quenching and Non-Radiative Relaxation

Photoluminescence occurs when electrons relax from photoexcited states radiatively. Emissions resulting from singlet-singlet transitions are known as fluorescence. However, there are a number of ways in which electrons in these excited states can relax non-radiatively.

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Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF)

Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) is a mechanism by which triplet state electrons can be harvested to generate fluorescence.

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Exciplex and Excimer Absorption and Emission Exciplex and Excimer Absorption and Emission

An exciplex (or excited complex) is a complex formed between two different conjugated molecules (monomers), one of which is in an excited state.

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Calculate Sheet Resistance Using the Four-Probe Method Calculate Sheet Resistance Using the Four-Probe Method

This guide explains the theory behind sheet resistance, an electrical property of thin films of materials, and demonstrates how the four-probe method can be used to measure it.

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How to Measure Sheet Resistance using a Four-Point Probe How to Measure Sheet Resistance using a Four-Point Probe

This guide gives an overview of how to use the Ossila Four-Point Probe System, as well as some general tips and tricks for measuring sheet resistance.

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Slot-Die Coating: Practical Guide to Theory and Troubleshooting Slot-Die Coating: Practical Guide to Theory and Troubleshooting

Slot-die coating is an extremely versatile deposition technique in which a solution is delivered onto a substrate via a narrow slot positioned close to the surface.

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Ossila Slot Die Coater Getting Started with the Ossila Slot Die Coater

Compatible with both roll-to-roll and sheet-to-sheet deposition processes, slot die coating is one of the best techniques available for scalable thin film deposition.

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Solar Cells: A Guide to Theory and Measurement Solar Cells: A Guide to Theory and Measurement

A solar cell is a device that converts light into electricity via the ‘photovoltaic effect’. They are also commonly called ‘photovoltaic cells’ after this phenomenon, and also to differentiate them from solar thermal devices.

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A timeline of the history of solar cells. 1839: Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel discovers the photoelectric effect. 1840s: Scientists experiment with selenium to convert solar energy to electricity. The efficiency is very low at 1%. 1905: Albert Einstein publishes his paper on the photoelectric effect. 1916: Robert Milikan presents experimental proof of the photoelectric effect. 1918: Jan Czochralski develops a method of growing single crystal silicon. 1954: Bell Laboratories invent the Bell Solar Battery. 1950-1960s: The Cold War leads to the use of solar cells in solar technology. 1970s and beyond: Post-Cold War research reveals new terrestrial application of solar cells. 2023: Solar power generated in space is beamed to Earth. History of Solar Cells

Humans have been using solar energy for light and heat for hundreds of years. Chinese, Greek, and Roman inventors built structures that tracked the sun to capture light and warmth. Later, concentrated light was applied to ignite fires using curved metallic objects known as 'burning mirrors'. By the 18th century, natural philosophers were trapping solar heat with glass.

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The working principles of solar cells: the illumination of solar cells, the excitation of electrons in the semiconductor materials, the conversion of free electrons into a DC current, the conversion of DC to AC for use in household appliances How Do Solar Panels Work?

The global demand for electricity is continuously increasing. More and more resources are being invested into finding new energy sources rather than relying on our finite fossil fuel supply. One of these sources is sunlight.

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The working principle of transparent solar panels. Transparent Solar Panels

One of the factors preventing widespread adoption of solar panels is the limited space for installation, particularly in densely populated areas like cities where land and roof space are scarce. To address this issue, transparent solar panels are being introduced as a potential solution to capture solar energy in more areas.

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Do solar panels work on cloudy days? Energy generated by solar panels vs. cloud coverage in the UK in 2023 Do Solar Panels Work On Cloudy Days?

A common concern amongst home and business owners is whether solar panels can work efficiently in the climate they operate in. Solar panels are more efficient the more sunlight is incident on them.

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Monocrystalline vs polycrystalline solar cells Monocrystalline vs Polycrystalline Solar Panels

The rise in popularity of solar panels has resulted in several types of solar panels being developed. Each uses slightly different materials or technology to achieve the same goal: convert the sun’s energy into useable electricity. Of these, monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels are by far the most popular choices.

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How is the energy from solar cells stored How Is Solar Energy Stored?

Solar panels harness the free and renewable energy produced by the sun to generate electricity. While they have many advantages, they face a significant drawback: they're unable to produce electricity without sunlight. Consequently, energy production is reduced and reliability suffers at night or during long periods of poor weather.

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PTAA for perovskite chemical structure PTAA or Spiro-OMeTAD? | Choosing a HTL for your Solar Cells

PTAA and Spiro-OMeTAD are both used as hole transport layers in high efficiency perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Regular architecture devices using PTAA and Spiro-OMeTAD layers have demonstrated power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of over 22% and 25% respectively.

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I-V Curves: A Guide to Measurement I-V Curves: A Guide to Measurement

An I-V curve (short for 'current-voltage characteristic curve'), is a graphical representation of the relationship between the voltage applied across an electrical device and the current flowing through it.

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What is Voltammetry? Types and Applications What is Voltammetry? Types and Applications

Voltammetry is the study of the current response of a chemical under an applied potential difference. Voltammetry encompasses a number of different methods.

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Organic Photovoltaics: An Introduction Organic Photovoltaics: An Introduction

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have received widespread attention due to promising qualities, such as solution processability, tunable electronic properties, low temperature manufacture, and cheap and light materials.

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Organic Photovoltaics vs. 2nd-Generation Solar Cell Technologies Organic Photovoltaics vs. 2nd-Generation Solar Cell Technologies

Due to their high efficiency and well-established manufacture, crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells currently dominate the solar cell market.

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Organic Photovoltaics vs 3rd-Generation Solar Cell Technologies Organic Photovoltaics vs 3rd-Generation Solar Cell Technologies

Whilst the majority of commercial solar cells are currently made using crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin-film alternatives have the potential to be cheaper, flexible, and more straightforward to produce.

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OPV and OLED Fabrication Guide OPV and OLED Fabrication Guide

Ossila’s pre-patterned ITO substrates are used for a wide variety of teaching and research devices (both organic and inorganic) where a high-quality ITO surface is required.

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Green Solvents for Organic Photovoltaics Green Solvents for Organic Photovoltaics

Whilst efficiencies of lab-scale organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have continued to rise in recent years, the majority of systems use aromatic halogenated solvents to dissolve the active layer.

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Solar Cell Encapsulation in a Glove Box Solar Cell Encapsulation in a Glove Box

When working with air sensitive compounds, it is vital that to protect your materials before removing them from inert atmospheres (like a glove box). One way to do this is to encapsulate your devices before exposing them to ambient conditions.

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Perovskites and Perovskite Solar Cells - An Introduction Perovskites and Perovskite Solar Cells - An Introduction

The rapid improvement of perovskite solar cells has made them the rising star of the photovoltaics world and of huge interest to the academic community.

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History and Evolution of Perovskites History and Evolution of Perovskites

The discovery of perovskite crystals in the Ural Mountains in the 19th century was followed by the discovery of metal halide perovskites some 50 years later.

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Light transmission through a wide band gap perovskite- any photons with energy  over 1.7 eV will be absorbed WBG perovskite. Wide Bandgap Perovskites

Wide bandgap (WBG) perovskites are a subset of perovskite semiconductor materials. These perovskite materials are characterized by a bandgap energy (Eg) >1.7 eV.

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MAPbI3 unit cell structure Introduction to MAPbI3 : Methylammonium Lead Iodide, CH3NH3PbI3

Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) was one of the first perovskite materials used in perovskite solar cells. These crystal structures combine the organic A cation methylammonium (MA+, CH3NH3+) and divalent lead (Pb+) with three iodide anions (I-).

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FAPbI3 unit cell structure An Introduction to FAPbI3: Formamadinium Lead Iodide, CH(NH2)2PbI3

Formamidinum lead iodide (FAPbI3) is a material used for perovskite solar cells. FAPbI3 was introduced in 2014 as an alternative to MAPbI3 (Eperon 2014).

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Perovskite Fabrication Perovskite Fabrication

This guide describes our recommended fabrication routine for perovskite solar cells using Ossila I101 Perovskite Precursor Ink which is designed to be used with a bottom ITO/PEDOT:PSS anode and a top PC70BM/Ca/Al cathode.

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FTO Substrates: Adapting Unpatterened Substrates for Photovoltaic Devices FTO Substrates: Adapting Unpatterened Substrates for Photovoltaic Devices

As part of our photovoltaic substrate system, Ossila offers patterned Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) substrates which are designed to work with our evaporation masks to create multi pixel devices.

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Perovskite Solar Cells: Methods of Increasing Stability & Durability Perovskite Solar Cells: Methods of Increasing Stability & Durability

This article aims to introduce some methods that have been adapted to improve perovskite solar cell stability.

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Perovskite Solar Cells: Causes of Degradation Perovskite Solar Cells: Causes of Degradation

Perovskite solar cells show impressive efficiencies and offer “a different kind of solar cell” that could be cheap to manufacture and could be semi-transparent, lightweight, and flexible.

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2D perovskites and quasi-2D perovskites crystal structure What Are 2D Perovskites?

2D perovskites are perovskite materials with a layered crystal structure. They are made up of metal-halide sheets, separated by large organic cations called spacers.

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Perovskite Solar Cells: Passivation Techniques Perovskite Solar Cells: Passivation Techniques

Perovskite solar cells have demonstrated impressive device metrics, including open-circuit voltages of up to 1.2V. However, in order for PSCs to achieve their theoretical best efficiencies, all non-essential recombination pathways should be eliminated.

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Perovskite being spin coated within Ossila Laboratory Glove Box I301 Triple Cation Perovskite Solar Cells Processing

A condensed summary of our fabrication routine for standard architecture devices using our I301 Triple Cation Perovskite Precursor Ink. This recipe is based on the one described by Saliba et al (2018).

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Perovskite FAQ Perovskite FAQ

Our technical support team receive enquiries about perovskite solar cell or photovoltaic fabrication on a regular basis. For your convenience, we've collated some of the most common questions here which you may find helpful when using I101 or I201 perovskite precursor inks.

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Introduction to 2D Materials Introduction to 2D Materials

The foundation of technology is the understanding of material systems. Specific material properties are required depending on the application.

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Carbon Nanotubes: Uses, Properties and Limitations Carbon Nanotubes: Uses, Properties and Limitations

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been deemed a wonder material due to their remarkable and highly unique physical and chemical properties. They have received much attention over the past decade as a promising material, particularly in the trending field of nanotechnology.

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Viscoelastic Transfer of 2D Material Using PDMS Viscoelastic Transfer of 2D Material Using PDMS

Viscoelastic transfer using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps is one of the methods used for the deterministic placement of 2D materials and the fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures.

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Molybdenum Disulfide Molybdenum Disulfide

Molybdenum disulfide belongs to a class of materials called 'transition metal dichalcogenides'. Materials in this class have the chemical formula MX2, where M is a transition metal atom and X is a chalcogen.

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Reducing Graphene Oxide to Graphene Using Environmentally Safe Materials Reducing Graphene Oxide to Graphene Using Environmentally Safe Materials

Graphene has many potential electronic, optoelectronic and biological uses. However, graphene itself is non-soluble, and this makes it very difficult to deposit from solution.

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Solution Based OFETs Solution Based OFETs

This guide describes the fabrication of evaporation-free OFETs using the Ossila pre-patterned ITO OFET substrates (product codes S161 & S162).

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OLED Testing Guide OLED Testing Guide

This guide gives you an overview of what to consider when characterising an OLED, as well as tips for their measurement.

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Source Measure Unit: Python Programming Guide What is a Source Measure Unit?

A source measure unit (also known as a source meter or SMU) is a tool that can power your electronics and measure their performance at the same time.

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Ossila Source Measure Unit with the Ossila Solar Simulator to test solar cells When To Use A Source Measure Unit

Using an integrated Source Measure Unit (also known as SMU or source meter) offers numerous advantages over assembling separate components. This article highlights the benefits of using an SMU, including speed, synchronization, programmability, cost-effectiveness, the ability to handle negative voltages, and its superiority over traditional multimeters and power supplies.

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Source measure unit in use When To Use A Source Measure Unit

Source measure units (also known as source meters or SMUs) are versatile tools widely used in electronic testing and characterization. This article explores the practical applications of SMUs.

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Ossila Source Measure Unit Front Panel What Are The Channels On The Source Measure Unit For?

The Ossila Source Measure Unit is designed to test and measure small devices/films which operate between 10V to -10V, and can measure currents up to 200 mA. Potential applications include solar cell characterization, OLED testing, measuring certain battery properties, FET characterization and much more.

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Graph plotting the power density produced by a pervoskite solar cell Measuring Solar Cells with a Source Measure Unit

Source measure units are vital pieces of equipment used for many applications, including the measurement of new solar cells. A small-scale test device is usually used to characterize the solar cell efficiency.

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Electrical Testing Boards can be used with the Ossila Source Measure Unit to test Solar devices. SMU Measurements: The Basics, I-V Curves, and Voltage Tracking

Learn how to conduct various SMU measurements such as solar cell I-V curves, external voltage tracking, and basic quick measurements.

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Source Measure Unit: Python Programming Guide Source Measure Unit: Python Programming Guide

The Ossila Source Measure Unit can be controlled directly over USB or Ethernet using various commands. These can be sent as strings, enabling the use of a large variety of programming languages, including Python, MATLAB, LabVIEW, Java, and C/C++.

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Xtralien Scientific Python (Legacy) Xtralien Scientific Python (Legacy)

The Xtralien Scientific Python distribution is a development environment aimed at scientists and includes all the relevant tools and libraries that a scientist will need to get started.

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Getting Started with the X100 Source Measure Unit (Legacy) Getting Started with the X100 Source Measure Unit (Legacy)

The X100 (now discontinued, see X200 Source Measure Unit instead) is a powerful and versatile device. The tutorials and demos on this page are intended to help get you started with the X100 and make device characterisation as easy as possible.

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What is an OLED? What is an OLED?

The acronym ‘OLED’ stands for Organic Light-Emitting Diode - a technology that uses LEDs in which the light is produced by organic molecules. These organic LEDs are used to create what are considered to be the world’s best display panels.

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History of OLEDs History of OLEDs

Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology spans over a thirty-year history. It touches our everyday lives through our reliance on devices like smartphones.

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Phone with OLED screen OLED vs LED

Traditional LEDs use inorganic light producing materials, whereas OLEDs use organic molecules. With different materials come different advantages.

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Black phosphorus monolayer structure OLED Burn-In

As the commercial popularity of OLEDs increased, their advantages over the traditional LED-powered displays became clear.

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Foldable OLED technology is expensive Why are OLEDs Expensive?

Advanced features, material availability, fabrication issues, and the blue pixel problem are among some of the factors that keep the price of OLED technologies so high.

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Dark spots reduce OLED lifespan How Long Do OLEDs Last?

Researchers and consumers are both very interested in how long OLEDs last. Issues like black spots, burn-in, and pixel failure still affect OLED devices.

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Transparent OLED tablet How Do Transparent OLEDs Work?

TOLEDs only contain transparent layers, unlike standard OLEDs which include some opaque layers. The transparent layers allow light to pass through the device from all angles but also render parts of the window or display panel opaque when in use.

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Introduction to Bulk Electrolysis Introduction to Bulk Electrolysis

Unlike many other electrochemical techniques, which are limited to the diffusion layer, bulk electrolysis (sometimes referred to just ‘electrolysis’) changes the composition of the bulk solution. Bulk electrolysis experiments aim to generate a quantitative conversion such that the amount of substrate consumed is directly proportional to the total consumed charge.

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Spectroelectrochemistry (SEC) Techniques Spectroelectrochemistry (SEC) Techniques

Spectroelectrochemistry (SEC) is an experimental technique that combines electrochemistry and spectroscopy. While electrochemical experiments provide information on macroscopic properties like reaction rates, spectroscopic techniques give information on a molecular level, such as the structure of molecules and their electronic configuration.

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Photovoltaic Substrate Overview Photovoltaic Substrate Overview

Ossila's photovoltaic substrates have been developed to maximise performance and fabrication efficiency for a range of modern photovoltaic device types where ITO series resistance becomes critical.

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OLED Substrate (Pixelated Anode) System Overview OLED Substrate (Pixelated Anode) System Overview

The schematics below show the layout of the substrates along with the available deposition shadow masks. The pixelated anode substrates come with six ITO fingers which define the pixels plus an additional cathode bus-bar.

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Long Channel OFET Fabrication System Overview Long Channel OFET Fabrication System Overview

The Long Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistor (OFET) source/drain evaporation stack is designed to make fabrication as simple as possible so you can focus on material testing rather than fabrication.

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Making OLED and OPV solar cells: Quickstart Guide Making OLED and OPV solar cells: Quickstart Guide

Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) or organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) can be easily manufactured using Ossila’s pre-patterned ITO substrates and a few simple spin coating and evaporating steps.

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Viscoelastic Transfer of 2D Material Using PDMS Viscoelastic Transfer of 2D Material Using PDMS

Viscoelastic transfer using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps is one of the methods used for the deterministic placement of 2D materials and the fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures.

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How to Make Efficient Perovskites Solar Cells in A Glove Box How to Make Efficient Perovskites Solar Cells in A Glove Box

This video is a guide on how to make perovskite films when processed inside a nitrogen filled glove box. The resultant devices achieve efficiencies greater than 19% PCE.

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How to clean substrates for photovoltaic or OLED fabrication How to clean substrates for photovoltaic or OLED fabrication

This video provides a walk through guide on how to clean substrates for photovoltaic and OLED fabrication.

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Guide to make efficient air processed perovskite devices Guide to make efficient air processed perovskite devices

This video provides a guide to making efficient air-processed perovskite devices.

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How humidity affects air processed perovskite films How humidity affects air processed perovskite films

This video details the effects humidity has on air-processed perovskite films.

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A PhD Student Condenses: The Impact of OPV Processing Conditions A PhD Student Condenses: The Impact of OPV Processing Conditions

While a large part of research into the bulk heterojunction morphology of organic solar cells focuses on component choice,1 the morphology is also tuned by a host of processing conditions.

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A PhD Student Condenses: ITIC & its Derivatives as OPV Acceptors A PhD Student Condenses: ITIC & its Derivatives as OPV Acceptors

Of the significant efforts in research devoted to NFAs, the proposal of the fused-ring system ‘ITIC’ in 2015 has generated the most success.

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A PhD Student Condenses: Fine-Tuning A-D-A Small-Molecule Acceptors A PhD Student Condenses: Fine-Tuning A-D-A Small-Molecule Acceptors

Typically, polymer-based organic semiconductors (OSCs) are associated with OPVs. However, small molecules are also showing significant promise in terms of NFAs,2–4 and have similarly tunable properties (such as band-gap width).

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A PhD Student Condenses: Factors Influencing OPV Stability A PhD Student Condenses: Factors Influencing OPV Stability

Typically, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are manufactured in the form of a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cell, where the active layer consists of a blend of donor and acceptor materials with various interfacial layers and electrodes.

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A PhD Student Condenses: Introduction to Ternary Organic Solar Cells A PhD Student Condenses: Introduction to Ternary Organic Solar Cells

The majority of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) in research are based upon a binary active-layer mixture (of donor and acceptor materials) in the form of a bulk heterojunction (BHJ).

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Introducing the Ossila Potentiostat Introducing the Ossila Potentiostat

The new Ossila Potentiostat has been designed to help electrochemists perform cyclic voltammetry for less. The complete system includes cyclic voltammetry software, an electrochemical cell, and everything you need to start taking measurements.

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Synthesis of Perovskite Quantum Dots Synthesis of Perovskite Quantum Dots

Synthesising high quality quantum dots (QDs) can be a complex process. Two major routes to the synthesis have now been developed: room temperate synthesis and synthesis by hot injection.

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Perovskite Quantum Dots: A Rapidly Expanding Area of Research Perovskite Quantum Dots: A Rapidly Expanding Area of Research

>Over the last two decades, quantum dots have elicited a considerable amount of excitement and attention from both research scientists and the media. When Sony launched their XBR line of televisions in 2013, quantum dots successfully moved from pure research into the commercial sphere. Despite this, there are still some barriers to overcome before we can expect to see widespread adoption of quantum dot-based products.

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Spin coater chuck diagram Choosing the Right Spin Coater Chuck

A well-designed and correctly chosen chuck provides stability and balance during the spin coating process. It needs to be able to withstand the rotational forces of a spin coater and also to maintain the substrate firmly in place.

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Contact Angle Goniometer User Manual Ossila Contact Angle Goniometer User Manual

The Ossila Contact Angle Goniometer provides a fast, reliable, and easy method to measure the contact angle or surface tension of a droplet.

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Dip Coater User Manual Ossila Dip Coater User Manual

Ossila's Dip Coater is a system designed to deposit thin wet films through the controlled immersion and withdrawal of a substrate from a reservoir of solution.

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Four-Point Probe User Manual Ossila Four-Point Probe User Manual

The Ossila Four-Point Probe System is a low-cost solution for rapid and reliable measurement of the sheet resistance, resistivity and conductivity of materials.

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Glove Box User Manual Ossila Glove Box User Manual

Ossila's inert atmosphere Glove Box comes equipped with high accuracy oxygen and humidity sensors, quick purge function and antechamber for quick item transfer.

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LED Measurement System User Manual Ossila LED Measurement System User Manual

The Ossila LED Measurement System is a low-cost solution for reliable current-voltage-luminance and lifetime measurements of light emitting diodes.

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Spectrometer User Manual Ossila Optical Spectrometer User Manual

Ossila's USB powered Optical Spectrometer has been designed to simplify the optical characterisation of thin films, solutions, nanocrystals and more.

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Potentiostat User Manual Ossila Potentiostat User Manual

Ossila’s Potentiostat is low-cost and easy-to-use system for performing cyclic voltammetry measurements. Cyclic voltammetry is one of the most widely used electrochemical techniques, providing important information about materials.

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Slot-Die Coater User Manual Ossila Slot-Die Coater User Manual

The Ossila Slot-Die Coater has been designed for simple operation and easy maintenance. An integrated high-precision Syringe Pump allows for accurate flow rates.

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Solar Cell I-V Test System User Manual Ossila Solar Cell I-V Test System User Manual

The Ossila Solar Cell I-V Test System is a low-cost solution for reliable current-voltage characterisation of photovoltaic devices.

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Spin Coater User Manual Ossila Spin Coater User Manual

The vacuum-free Ossila Spin Coater is compact and portable to optimise space in the glovebox and produce high-quality coatings without substrate warping.

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Syringe Pump User Manual Ossila Syringe Pump User Manual

Ossila's Syringe Pump has been designed to move volumes of fluids accurately and repeatedly at specified rates. User manual for single and dual models.

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Source Measure Unit User Manual Ossila Source Measure Unit User Manual

Ossila's Source Measure Unit (SMU) can measure a wide range of research devices including photovoltaics, LEDs and OLEDs, transistors, and more.

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UV Ozone Cleaner User Manual Ossila UV Ozone Cleaner User Manual

Ossila's UV Ozone Cleaner is designed to provide a simple, inexpensive, and efficient method of obtaining ultra-clean surfaces free of organic contaminants.

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Software and drivers Software and Drivers

The latest software and drivers including our cyclic voltammetry software for the Ossila Potentiostat and more.

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