|Classification / Family
||Monomers, Building blocks, Thiophene, Heterocycles, Chemical synthesis for low band gap polymers, Intermediates for OFETs, OLED, Organic Photovoltaics, Polymer solar cells
- 65°C at 0.45 mmHg (lit.)
- 299°C at 760 mmHg (1 atm, lit.)
- 0.936 g/cm3
- Colourless/pale yellow liquid
3-Hexylthiophene is the intermediate for the synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene), referred as P3HT. To date, it is the most studied polymer for polymer solar cells. The efficiency of a P3HT/PCBM solar cell is typically 4-5 %, but with new fullerene materials developed to closely match the energy levels of P3HT (HOMO 5.0 eV, LUMO 3.0 eV), device performances have been pushed to 6.5% .
The synthesis of P3HT is relatively easy and short, only a 3-4 step synthesis is required [2, 3, 4]. The challenge of P3HT is that it only absorbs a narrow band of solar spectrum, so it has little room for improvement in terms of performance efficiency.
Literature and Reviews
6.5% Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells Based on poly(3‐hexylthiophene) and Indene‐C60 Bisadduct by Device Optimization, G. Zhao et al., Adv. Mater., 22, 4355–4358 (2010).
Regiocontrolled Synthesis of Poly(3-alkylthiophenes) Mediated by Rieke Zinc: Their Characterization and Solid-State Properties, Chen et. al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 117 (1), pp 233–244 (1995).
A Simple Method to Prepare Head-to-Tail Coupled, Regioregular Poly(3-alkylthiophenes) Using Grignard Metathesis., R. S. Loewe et al., Adv. Mater., 11: 250–253 (1999)
Synthesis and characterisation of telechelic regioregular head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes), A. Iraqi et. al., J. Mater. Chem., 8, 25-29 (1998).
Charge Transport and Photocurrent Generation in Poly(3-hexylthiophene):Methanofullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells, D. Valentin et al, Adv. Funct. Mater., 16, 699–708 (2006).
Soluble and processable regioregular poly(3‐hexylthiophene) for thin film field‐effect transistor applications with high mobility, Z. Bao et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4108 (1996).
Dependence of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Film Morphology and Field-Effect Mobility on Molecular Weight, R. J. Kline, Macromolecules, 38 (8), pp 3312–3319 (2005).