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SA4, Volatile Solid Additive, DIO Replacement

CAS Number 24760-36-9

Materials, Monomers, Semiconducting Molecules

Product Code M2352A1-1g
Price £210 ex. VAT

SA4, volatile solid additive for polymer solar cells

High purity and available to buy online with fast dispatching

Specifications | MSDS | Literature and Reviews

SA4 can be used as a solid additive to the blends of active layer materials in organic solar cells to enhance the absorption and charge transport ability of acceptors by facilitating molecular packing and aggregation. SA4 is currently used as a replacement for 1-chloronaphthalene (1-CN) and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), which are high-boiling-point solvent additives. It has been observed that SA4 exhibits a distinct weight loss at 140 °C and that higher temperatures accelerated the volatilization process. SA4 could completely volatilize from the active layer after thermal annealing to effectively re-assemble the packing of the non-fullerene acceptors in the solid state.

A PCE over 10% was achieved when a volatilizable solid additive SA4 was introduced in the active layer of P3HT:ZY-4Cl, compared to the device without the additive with a PCE of 9.46%. When SA4 was presented in the active layer of PBDB-TCl:IT-4F, device efficiency of 13.5% in PCE was observed. For the active layer without SA4 as an additive, a PCE of 12.1% was observed.

Device Structure Without SA4 VOC (V) JSC (mA cm-2) FF (%) PCE (%)


0.907 19.0 70.3 12.1
Device Structure With 16 wt.% SA4 VOC (V) JSC (mA cm-2) FF (%) PCE (%)


0.887 20.4 74.8 13.5

General Information

CAS number 24760-36-9
Full name 2-(Thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione
Chemical formula C14H8O2S
Molecular weight 240.282 g/mol
Purity >98% (1HNMR)
Form Yellow powder/crystals
Solubility Chloroform, chlorobenzene
Synonyms SA-4, PP4, 2-[2]thienylmethylene-indan-1,3-dione;2-Thiophen-2-ylmethylene-indan-1,3-dione
Classification / Family Solid additive, organic semiconducting materials, organic photovoltaics, polymer solar cells, NF-PSCs

Chemical Structure

SA4, or 2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione, has a chemical structure consisting of indan-1,3-dione joined by a thiophene unit via methylene bridge.

Chemical structure of SA-4, 2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione
SA4 chemical structure

MSDS Documentation



Batch Quantity Price
M2352A1 1 g £210
M2352A1 5 g £850
M2352A1 10 g £1300
M2352A1 25 g £2600

Literature and Reviews

  1. Enhanced π-π Interactions of Non-Fullerene Acceptors by Volatilizable Solid Additive in Efficient Polymer Solar Cells, Adv. Mater., 31 (18), 1900477 (2019); R. Yu et al., DOI: 10.1002/adma.201900477.
  2. Achieving over 10% Efficiency in Poly(3-hexylthiophene)-Based Organic Solar Cells via Solid Additives, C. Yang et al., ChemSusChem 14 (17), 3607-3613 (2021); DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202100627.
  3. Low-cost and efficient organic solar cells based on polythiophene-and poly(thiophene vinylene)-related donors, C. Yang et al., Aggreg., e111 (2021); DOI: 10.1002/agt2.111.
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