BPhen - Bathophenanthroline

Order Code: M961
MSDS sheet

Price

(excluding Taxes)

£77.00


General Information

CAS number 1662-01-7 
Chemical formula C24H16N2
Molecular weight 332.40 g/mol
Absorption λmax 272 nm (in THF)
Fluorescence λem 379 nm (in THF)
HOMO/LUMO HOMO = 6.4 eV; LUMU = 3.0 eV
Synonyms Bathophenanthroline, 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline
Classification / Family Hole-blocking layer (HBL) materials , Electron injection layer (EIL) materials; OLEDS, Organic photovoltaics, Perovskite solar cells.

 

Product Details

Purity > 99.9%
Melting point 218-220 °C (lit.)
Colour Off-white to pale yellow crystals

 

Chemical structure

bphen Bathophenanthroline
Chemical structure of bathophenanthroline (BPhen); CAS# 1662-01-7; Chemical formula C24H16N2.

 

Applications

BPhen is widely used as a hole-blocking or exciton-blocking layer due to its wide energy gap and also high ionisation potential.

The phenanthroline unit is a small, rigid and planar with extended π-electrons and short hopping lengths that facilitate electron mobility. The electron mobility of BPhen is about 5 × 10-4 cmV-1 s-1 which is about two orders of magnitude higher than that of Alq3.

When doped with lithium, BPhen:Li is an excellent electron-transport material, and it is often used as an electron-injection layer to enables ohmic contact to any electrode without the need to consider the work function alignments.

 

Device structure                                            ITO/2-TNATA:33% WO3 (100 nm)/NPB (10 nm)/Alq3 (30 nm)/Bphen (20 nm)/BPhen: 2% Cs (10 nm)/Al (150 nm) [1]
Colour Green   green
Operating Voltage for 100 cd/m2 3.1 V
Current Efficiency for 20 mA/cm2 4.4 cd/A
Power Efficiency for 20 mA/cm2 3.3 lm W1

Device structure

ITO/TAPC:MoOx (10 nm, 15 wt.%)/TAPC(35 nm)/TcTa:Ir(BT)2(acac) (5 nm, 4 wt.%)/26DCzPPy:FIrpic (5 nm, 15 wt.%)/26DCzPPy:Ir(BT)2(acac) (5 nm, 4 wt.%)/BPhen (40 nm)/Cs2CO3 (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) [2]
Colour White   white
Max. EQE 13.2%
Max. Current Efficiency 35.0 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 30.6 lm W1

Device structure

Si/SiO2/Al (80 nm)/MoOx: TAPC (43 nm, 15 wt.%)/TAPC (10 nm)/Ir(piq)3:TcTa (3 nm, 6%)/TcTa (2 nm)/FIrpic:26DCzPPy (5 nm, 12 wt.%)/BPhen (2 nm)/PO-01*:26DCzPPy (5 nm, 6 wt.%)/BPhen (40 nm)/Cs2CO3 (1 nm)/Al (2 nm)/Cu (18 nm)/TcTa (60 nm) [3]
Colour White    white
EQE @ 1000 cd/m2 10%
Current Efficiency @ 1000 cd/m2 25.6 cd/A
Power Efficiency @ 1000 cd/m2 20.1 lm W1
Device structure ITO/MoOx (2 nm)/m-MTDATA: MoOx (30 nm, 15 wt.%)/m-MTDATA
(10 nm)/Ir(ppz)
(10 nm)/CBP:PO-01* (3 nm, 6 wt.%)/Ir(ppz)3
(1 nm)/DBFDPOPhCz*:FIrpic (10 nm,10 wt.%)/Bphen (36 nm)/LiF
(1 nm)/Al [4]                   
Colour White    white
Max. EQE 12.2%
Max. Current Efficiency 42.4 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 47.6 lm W1
Device structure ITO/NPB (30 nm)/CBP:8 wt% (t-bt)2Ir(acac)* (15 nm)/
BPhen(35 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/CoPc:C60 (4:1) (5 nm)/
MoO(5 nm)/NPB(30 nm)/CBP:8 wt% (t-bt)2Ir(acac)* (15 nm)/
BPhen (35 nm)/Mg:Ag (100 nm) [5]
Colour    Yellow    yellow
Max. EQE 16.78%
Max. Luminance  42,236 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 50.2 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 12.9 lm W1
Device structure                ITO/NPD* (40 nm)/9%-Ir(piq)3:CBP (20 nm)/BPhen (50 nm)/KF (1 nm)/Al [6]
Colour Red    red
Max. Luminance  11,000 cd/m2
Max EQE  10.3%
Max. Powder Efficiency 8.0 lm W1
Device structure                                            ITO/0.4 wt% F4TCNQ doped α NPD (30 nm)/ 5 wt% Ir (ppy)3 doped CBP (50 nm)/BPhen (30 nm)/20 wt% TCNQ mixed BPhen (1.5 nm)/Al [7]
Colour Green   green
Luminance @ 15 V 1,320 cd/m2 
Power Efficiency @ 14 V 56.6 lm W1  
Current Efficiency @ 14 V 23.17 cd/A
Device structure                                       ITO/F4TCNQ (3 nm)/MeO-Spiro-TPD (27 nm)/CBP + BCzVbi* (50 nm)/BPhen (10 nm)/TCNQ mixed BPhen (1.5 nm)/Al [8]
Colour                                  Red   red
Luminance @ 10 mA/cm2 1,790 cd/m2
Power Efficiency @ 10 mA/cm2      4.65 lm W1  
Current Efficiency @ 10 mA/cm2 18.0 cd/A
Device structure  ITO/ NPB (70 nm)/DPVBi:BCzVBi (15 wt%, 15 nm)/ADN:BCzVBi (15% wt%, 15 nm)/BPhen (30 nm)/ Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm) [9]
Colour Deep Blue  deep blue
Max. Luminance       8,668 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency  5.16 cd/A
Device structure  ITO/m-MTDATA:MoOx (3:1, 15 nm)/m-MTDATA (30 nm)/NPB (5 nm)/Alq3 (50 nm)/BPhen (10 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) [10]
Colour Green   green
Max. Luminance 42,090 cd/m2 
Max. Current Efficiency 4.77 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 3.5 lm W1
Device structure ITO/MoO3 (5 nm)/ NPB (35 nm)/CBP (5 nm)/DPVBi (I) (10 nm)/CBP:Rubrene (4:1) (3 nm)/DPVBi (II) (30 nm)/CBP (HBL3) (2 nm)/BPhen (10 nm)/LiF/Al [11]
Colour White   white
Max. Luminance  2,650 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency  4.6 cd/A
Device structure ITO/MoO3 (5 nm)/ NPB (35 nm)/CBP (5 nm)/DPVBi (I) (10 nm)/CBP:Rubrene (4:1) (3 nm)/DPVBi (II) (30 nm)/CBP (HBL3) (2 nm)/BPhen (10 nm)/LiF/Al [12]
Colour White  white
Max. Luminance  12,100 cd/m2
Current Efficiency @ 11 V 5.03 cd/A
Device structure ITO/NPB/DPVBi:BCzVBi-6%/MADN:DCM2-0.5%/Bphen/Liq/Al [13]
Colour White  white
Max. Luminance  15,400 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 6.19 cd/A

 

Characterisation

bphen bathophenanthroline hplc
HPLC trace of bathophenanthrolinee (BPhen); CAS# 1662-01-7.

 

Literature and Reviews

  1. Highly Power Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a p-Doping Layer, C-C. Chang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 253504 (2006); doi: 10.1063/1.2405856.
  2. Pure White Organic Light-Emitting Diode with Lifetime Approaching the Longevity of Yellow Emitter, J-H. Jou et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3, 3134–3139 (2011). dx.doi.org/10.1021/am2006383.
  3. Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design, S-K. Kim et al., J. Mater. Chem., 18, 3376–3384 (2008). DOI: 10.1039/B805062G.
  4. Highly efficient and color-stable white organic light-emitting diode based on a novel blue phosphorescent host, Q. Wu et al., Syn. Metals 187, 160– 164 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2013.11.010.
  5. Effect of bulk and planar heterojunctions based charge generation layers on the performance of tandem organic light-emitting diodes, Z. Ma et al., Org. Electronics, 30, 136-142 (2016). doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2015.12.020
  6. Homoleptic Cyclometalated Iridium Complexes with Highly Efficient Red Phosphorescence and Application to Organic Light-Emitting Diode, A. Tsuboyama et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 12971-12979 (2003). DOI: 10.1021/ja034732d.
  7. Novel organic electron injection layer for efficient and stable organic light emitting diodes, R. Grover et al., J. Luminescence, 146, 53–56 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlumin.2013.09.004.
  8. Light outcoupling efficiency enhancement in organic light emitting diodes using an organic scattering layer, R. Grover et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 8 (1), 81–85 (2014). DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308133.
  9. Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes using dual emissive layers with host-dopant system, B. Lee et al., J. Photon. Energy. 3(1), 033598 (2013), doi:10.1117/1.JPE.3.033598.
  10. Very low turn-on voltage and high brightness tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminumbased
    organic light-emitting diodes with a MoOx p-doping layer, G. Xie et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 093305 (2008); doi: 10.1063/1.2890490.
  11. Enhancing Color Purity and Stable Efficiency of White Organic Light Diodes by Using Hole-Blocking Layer, C-J. Huang et al., J. Nanomater., 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/915894.
  12. Efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on a balanced split of the exciton-recombination zone using a graded mixed layer as an electron-blocking layer, C. K. Kim et al., J. Soc. Info. Display, 18 (1), 97-102 (2012).
  13. High efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using BCzVBi as blue fluorescent dopant,
    Y. Kim et al., J Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 8(9), 4579-83 (2008).