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Product Code M961-1g
Price $250 ex. VAT

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Bathophenanthroline, HBL material

Used to enable ohmic contact to any electrode when doped with Lithium

BPhen is widely used as a hole-blocking or exciton-blocking layer due to its wide energy gap and high ionisation potential.

The phenanthroline unit is small, rigid, and planar, with extended π-electrons and short hopping lengths that facilitate electron mobility. The electron mobility of BPhen is about 5 × 10-4 cmV-1 s-1, which is about two orders of magnitude higher than that of Alq3.

When doped with lithium, BPhen:Li is an excellent electron-transport material, and is often used as an electron-injection layer to enable ohmic contact to any electrode -- without the need to consider the work function alignments.

General Information

CAS number 1662-01-7 
Chemical formula C24H16N2
Molecular weight 332.40 g/mol
Absorption λmax 272 nm (in THF)
Fluorescence λem 379 nm (in THF)
HOMO/LUMO HOMO = 6.4 eV; LUMU = 3.0 eV
  • Bathophenanthroline
  • 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline
Classification / Family Hole-blocking layer (HBL), Electron-injection layer (EIL), OLEDS, Organic photovoltaics, Perovskite solar cells.

Product Details

Purity Sublimed > 99.0%
Melting point 218-220 °C (lit.)
Appearance Off-white to pale yellow crystals

Chemical Structure

bphen Bathophenanthroline
Chemical structure of bathophenanthroline (BPhen)

Device Structure(s)

Device structure ITO/2-TNATA:33% WO3 (100 nm)/NPB (10 nm)/Alq3 (30 nm)/Bphen (20 nm)/BPhen: 2% Cs (10 nm)/Al (150 nm) [1]
Colour Green green light emitting device
Operating Voltage for 100 cd/m2 3.1 V
Current Efficiency for 20 mA/cm2 4.4 cd/A
Power Efficiency for 20 mA/cm2 3.3 lm W−1
Device structure ITO/TAPC:MoOx (10 nm, 15 wt.%)/TAPC(35 nm)/TcTa:Ir(BT)2(acac) (5 nm, 4 wt.%)/26DCzPPy:FIrpic (5 nm, 15 wt.%)/26DCzPPy:Ir(BT)2(acac) (5 nm, 4 wt.%)/BPhen (40 nm)/Cs2CO3 (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) [2]
Colour White white light emitting device
Max. EQE 13.2%
Max. Current Efficiency 35.0 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 30.6 lm W−1
Device structure Si/SiO2/Al (80 nm)/MoOx: TAPC (43 nm, 15 wt.%)/TAPC (10 nm)/Ir(piq)3:TcTa (3 nm, 6%)/TcTa (2 nm)/FIrpic:26DCzPPy (5 nm, 12 wt.%)/BPhen (2 nm)/PO-01*:26DCzPPy (5 nm, 6 wt.%)/BPhen (40 nm)/Cs2CO3 (1 nm)/Al (2 nm)/Cu (18 nm)/TcTa (60 nm) [3]
Colour White white light emitting device
EQE @ 1000 cd/m2 10%
Current Efficiency @ 1000 cd/m2 25.6 cd/A
Power Efficiency @ 1000 cd/m2 20.1 lm W−1
Device structure ITO/MoOx (2 nm)/m-MTDATA: MoOx (30 nm, 15 wt.%)/m-MTDATA(10 nm)/Ir(ppz)3 (10 nm)/CBP:PO-01* (3 nm, 6 wt.%)/Ir(ppz)3(1 nm)/DBFDPOPhCz*:FIrpic (10 nm,10 wt.%)/Bphen (36 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al [4]
Colour White white light emitting device
Max. EQE 12.2%
Max. Current Efficiency 42.4 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 47.6 lm W−1
Device structure ITO/NPB (30 nm)/CBP:8 wt% (t-bt)2Ir(acac)* (15 nm)/BPhen(35 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/CoPc:C60 (4:1) (5 nm)/MoO(5 nm)/NPB(30 nm)/CBP:8 wt% (t-bt)2Ir(acac)* (15 nm)/BPhen (35 nm)/Mg:Ag (100 nm) [5]
Colour Yellow yellow device
Max. EQE 16.78%
Max. Luminance 42,236 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 50.2 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 12.9 lm W−1
Device structure ITO/NPD* (40 nm)/9%-Ir(piq)3:CBP (20 nm)/BPhen (50 nm)/KF (1 nm)/Al [6]
Colour Red red light emitting device
Max. Luminance 11,000 cd/m2
Max EQE 10.3%
Max. Powder Efficiency 8.0 lm W−1
Device structure ITO/0.4 wt% F4TCNQ doped α NPD (30 nm)/ 5 wt% Ir(ppy)3 doped CBP (50 nm)/BPhen (30 nm)/20 wt% TCNQ mixed BPhen (1.5 nm)/Al [7]
Colour Green green light emitting device
Luminance @ 15 V 1,320 cd/m2
Power Efficiency @ 14 V 56.6 lm W-1
Current Efficiency @ 14 V 23.17 cd/A
Device structure ITO/F4TCNQ (3 nm)/MeO-Spiro-TPD (27 nm)/CBP + BCzVbi* (50 nm)/BPhen (10 nm)/TCNQ mixed BPhen (1.5 nm)/Al [8]
Colour Red red light emitting device
Luminance @ 10 mA/cm2 1,790 cd/m2
Power Efficiency @ 10 mA/cm2 4.65 lm W−1
Current Efficiency @ 10 mA/cm2 18.0 cd/A
Device structure ITO/ NPB (70 nm)/DPVBi:BCzVBi (15 wt%, 15 nm)/ADN:BCzVBi (15% wt%, 15 nm)/BPhen (30 nm)/ Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm) [9]
Colour Deep Blue deep blue light emitting device
Max. Luminance 8,668 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency  5.16 cd/A
Device structure ITO/m-MTDATA:MoOx (3:1, 15 nm)/m-MTDATA (30 nm)/NPB (5 nm)/Alq3 (50 nm)/BPhen (10 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) [10]
Colour Green green light emitting device
Max. Luminance 42,090 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 4.77 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 3.5 lm W−1
Device structure ITO/MoO3 (5 nm)/ NPB (35 nm)/CBP (5 nm)/DPVBi (I) (10 nm)/CBP:Rubrene (4:1) (3 nm)/DPVBi (II) (30 nm)/CBP (HBL3) (2 nm)/BPhen (10 nm)/LiF/Al [11]
Colour White white light emitting device
Max. Luminance 2,650 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 4.6 cd/A
Device structure ITO/MoO3 (5 nm)/ NPB (35 nm)/CBP (5 nm)/DPVBi (I) (10 nm)/CBP:Rubrene (4:1) (3 nm)/DPVBi (II) (30 nm)/CBP (HBL3) (2 nm)/BPhen (10 nm)/LiF/Al [12]
Colour White white light emitting device
Max. Luminance 12,100 cd/m2
Current Efficiency @ 11 V 5.03 cd/A
Device structure ITO/NPB/DPVBi:BCzVBi-6%/MADN:DCM2-0.5%/Bphen/Liq/Al [13]
Colour White white light emitting device
Max. Luminance 15,400 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 6.19 cd/A


Grade Order Code Quantity Price
Sublimed (>99.0% purity) M961 1 g £200
Sublimed (>99.0% purity) M961 5 g £700

MSDS Documentation

BPhen MSDSBPhen MSDS sheet

Literature and Reviews

  1. Highly Power Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a p-Doping Layer, C-C. Chang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 253504 (2006); doi: 10.1063/1.2405856.
  2. Pure White Organic Light-Emitting Diode with Lifetime Approaching the Longevity of Yellow Emitter, J-H. Jou et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3, 3134–3139 (2011).
  3. Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design, S-K. Kim et al., J. Mater. Chem., 18, 3376–3384 (2008). DOI: 10.1039/B805062G.
  4. Highly efficient and color-stable white organic light-emitting diode based on a novel blue phosphorescent host, Q. Wu et al., Syn. Metals 187, 160– 164 (2014);
  5. Effect of bulk and planar heterojunctions based charge generation layers on the performance of tandem organic light-emitting diodes, Z. Ma et al., Org. Electronics, 30, 136-142 (2016). doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2015.12.020
  6. Homoleptic Cyclometalated Iridium Complexes with Highly Efficient Red Phosphorescence and Application to Organic Light-Emitting Diode, A. Tsuboyama et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 12971-12979 (2003). DOI: 10.1021/ja034732d.
  7. Novel organic electron injection layer for efficient and stable organic light emitting diodes, R. Grover et al., J. Luminescence, 146, 53–56 (2014).
  8. Light outcoupling efficiency enhancement in organic light emitting diodes using an organic scattering layer, R. Grover et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 8 (1), 81–85 (2014). DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308133.
  9. Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes using dual emissive layers with host-dopant system, B. Lee et al., J. Photon. Energy. 3(1), 033598 (2013), doi:10.1117/1.JPE.3.033598.
  10. Very low turn-on voltage and high brightness tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminumbased organic light-emitting diodes with a MoOx p-doping layer, G. Xie et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 093305 (2008); doi: 10.1063/1.2890490.
  11. Enhancing Color Purity and Stable Efficiency of White Organic Light Diodes by Using Hole-Blocking Layer, C-J. Huang et al., J. Nanomater., 2014; dio: 10.1155/2014/915894.
  12. Efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on a balanced split of the exciton-recombination zone using a graded mixed layer as an electron-blocking layer, C. K. Kim et al., J. Soc. Info. Display, 18 (1), 97-102 (2012).
  13. High efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using BCzVBi as blue fluorescent dopant, Y. Kim et al., J Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 8(9), 4579-83 (2008).

To the best of our knowledge the information provided here is accurate. The values provided are typical at the time of manufacture and may vary over time and from batch to batch. Products may have minor cosmetic differences (e.g. to the branding) compared to the photos on our website. All products are for laboratory and research and development use only.

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