Having three carbazole units as the pendants and triarylamine at the core, tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (TCTA) is electron-rich. As a result, it is widely used as a hole-transport and hole-injection material in light-emitting diodes and perovskite solar cells. With low electron mobility, TCTA has also been used as exciton/electron blocking layer materials because of its high lying LUMO energy level (LUMO = 2.4 eV).
TCTA is also a very popular phosphorescent host material due to its large band gap (Eg = 3.4 eV) for green, red and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs).
High-Efficiency Phosphorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Stable Emission Spectrum Based on RGB Separately Monochromatic Emission Layers, Q. Zhang et al., Chin. Phys. Lett., 31 (4) 046801 (2014).
Enhanced Electron Affinity and Exciton Confinement in ExciplexType Host: Power Efficient Solution-Processed Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with Low Turn-on Voltage, X. Ban et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 8, 2010-2016 (2016); DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b10335.
Highly efficient emitters of ultra-deep-blue light made from chrysene chromophores, H. Shin et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, Advance Article; DOI: 10.1039/C5TC03749B.
High Power Efficiency Solution-Processed Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Exciplex-Type Host with a Turn-on Voltage Approaching the Theoretical Limit, X. Ban et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7 (45), 25129–25138 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b06424.
Solution-Processed Small Molecules As Mixed Host for Highly Efficient Blue and White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes, Q Fu. et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 4, 6579−6586 (2012); dx.doi.org/10.1021/am301703a.
Highly efficient red OLEDs using DCJTB as the dopant and delayed fluorescent exciplex as the host, B. Zhao et al., Scientific Reports | 5:10697 | DOI: 10.1038/srep10697.
1,3,5-Triazine derivatives as new electron transport–type host materials for highly efficient green phosphorescent OLEDs,H-Fan Chen et al., J. Mater. Chem., 19, 8112–8118 (2009).
Highly efficient and color-stable hybrid warm white organic light-emitting diodes using a blue material with thermally activated delayed fluorescence, D. Zhang et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, 2, 8191-8197 (2014); DOI: 10.1039/c4tc01289e.
Enhance efficiency of blue and white organic light emitting diodes with mixed host emitting layer using TCTA and 3TPYMB, T-C. Liao et al., Curr. Appl. Phys., 13, S152-S155, (2013).
High Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Incorporating Yellow Phosphorescent Platinum(II) Complex and Composite Blue Host, S-L. Lai et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 23, 5168–5176 (2013); DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300281.
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