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4,4′-Bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP), is one of the most widely-used host materials for efficient fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high hole mobility. This is due to its electron-rich property from two carbazolyl units.
It has been demonstrated that CBP can efficiently host green, yellow and red phosphorescent emitters with triplet energies smaller than that of CBP (ET = 2.6 eV) .
Transient analysis of organic electrophosphorescence: I. Transient analysis of triplet energy transfer, M. Baldo et al., Phys Rev B, 62: 10958–10966 (2000).
Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices, Y. Sun, et al, Nature 440, 908-912 (2006), doi:10.1038/nature04645.
Highly efficient single-layer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with balanced charge transport, T. D. Anthopoulos et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4824 (2003).
White organic light-emitting devices with a bipolar transport layer between blue fluorescent and orange phosphorescent emitting layers, P. Chen et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023505 (2007).
Highly Efficient and Low-Voltage Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using an Iridium Complex as the Host Material, T. Tsuzuki et al., Adv. Mater., 19, 276–280 (2007).
High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters, H. Nakanotani et al., Nat. Commun., 5, 4016, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5016.
Highly simplified phosphorescent organic light emitting diode with >20% external quantum efficiency at >10,000 cd/m2, Z. B. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073310 (2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3532844.
Simplified phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices using heavy doping with an Ir complex as an emitter, Y. Miao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 4261 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/c4ra13308k.
Highly efficient and color-stable white organic light-emitting diode based on a novel blue phosphorescent host, Q. Wu et al., Syn. Metals 187, 160– 164 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2013.11.010.
Effect of bulk and planar heterojunctions based charge generation layers on the performance of tandem organic light-emitting diodes, Z. Ma et al., Org. Electronics, 30, 136-142 (2016). doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2015.12.020
Homoleptic Cyclometalated Iridium Complexes with Highly Efficient Red Phosphorescence and Application to Organic Light-Emitting Diode, A. Tsuboyama et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 12971-12979 (2003). DOI: 10.1021/ja034732d.
Novel organic electron injection layer for efficient and stable organic light emitting diodes, R. Grover et al., J. Luminescence, 146, 53–56 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlumin.2013.09.004.
Light outcoupling efficiency enhancement in organic light emitting diodes using an organic scattering layer, R. Grover et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 8 (1), 81–85 (2014). DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308133.
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