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Product Code M651-250mg
Price £210 ex. VAT

TPBi, ETL material for optoelectronic devices

Low price and available online for fast and secure dispatch

Overview | Specifications | Pricing and Options | MSDS | Literature and Reviews

2,2',2''-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole), TPBi (CAS number 192198-85-9), being electron deficient, is normally used as electron transport layer material in optoelectronic devices. Having a low LUMO energy level (2.7 eV), TPBi is also used as host material for both fluorescent and phosphorescent light emitting systems.

In some cases, TPBI is used to replace CBP (HBL)/Alq3 (ETL) to simplify the device structure for its excellent electron transporting and also its hole blocking abilities with very deep HOMO energy level (HOMO = 6.2/6.7 eV). It has also been reported that TPBi could be used as electron injection layer material between Alq3 (ETL) and Cs2O3/Al (electrode). It suggested that TPBI thin layer at the Alq3/Cs2O3 interface facilitates the electron injection and is also involved with hole-blocking and exciton confinement [3].

TPBi from Ossila was used in a high-impact paper (IF 15.88)

TPBi from Ossila was used in the high-impact paper (IF 15.88), Suppressing Efficiency Roll-Off at High Current Densities for Ultra-Bright Green Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes, C. Zou et al., ACS Nano, 14, 6076−6086 (2020); DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c01817; and paper (IF 29.4), Single-Layer Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes With Near-Unity Internal Quantum Efficiency, O. Sachnik et al., Adv. Mater., 35 (26), 2300574 (2023); DOI: 10.1002/adma.202300574.

General Information

CAS number 192198-85-9
Chemical formula C45H30N6
Molecular weight 654.76 g/mol
Absorption λmax 305 nm in THF
Fluorescence λem 370 nm in THF
HOMO/LUMO HOMO 6.2/6.7 eV, LUMO 2.7 eV [1, 2]
Synonyms 2,2',2"-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole)
Classification / Family

Benzimidazole derivatives, Electron transport layer materials (ETL), Electron injection layer materials (EIL), Hole blocking layer materials (HBL), Fluorescent and phosphorescent host materials.

Light-Emitting Diodes, Organic electronics

Product Details


Sublimed* >99.5%

Unsublimed* >98.0%
Melting point 272 - 277 °C (lit.)
Colour White Powder

*Sublimation is a technique used to obtain ultra pure-grade chemicals. For more details about sublimation, please refer to the Sublimed Materials.

Chemical Structure

chemcial structure of TPBi
Chemical Structure of 2,2',2"-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole), TPBi

Device Structure(s)

Device structure ITO/MoO3(1 nm)/mCP (60 nm)/mCP:TPBi:Ir(tfmppy)2(tpip)* (20 nm, 1:1, 6 wt%)/TPBi (15 nm)/TPPhen:W2(hpp)4* (45 nm, 12 wt%)/Al (100 nm) [2]
Colour Green green light emitting device
Max. EQE 20.8%
Max. Current Efficiency 72.9 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 66.3 lm W1  
Device structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PFO:MEH-PPV (1.0 wt%)/TPBi/LiF/Al [4]
Colour White white light emitting device
Max. Luminance 7,560  cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 7.8 cd/A
Device structure ITO/α-NPD (30 nm)/TCTA (20 nm)/CzSi* (10 nm)/10 wt% DMOC-DPS:DPEPO* (20 nm)/DPEPO (10 nm)/TPBI (30 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al [5]
Colour Blue blue light emitting device
Max. Luminance 2,544  cd/m2
Max. EQE       ≥ 14.5%
Device structure ITO/NPB/rubrene in p-DMDPVBi:NPB/TPBi/LiF/Al [6]
Colour White white light emitting device
Max. Luminance 18,100  cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 10.6 cd/A
Device structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P2*/TPBi/LiF/Al [7]
Colour Deep Blue deep blue light emitting device
Max. Luminance 274  cd/m2
Max. EQE 3.9%
Max. Current Efficiency 1.3 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 0.99 lm W
Device structure ITO/NPB (30 nm)/CBP:Ir(ppy)3 (20 nm)/TPBi:Ir(ppy)3 (10 nm)/TPBi (10 nm)/TPBi:LiF (40 nm)/LiF (1.2 nm)/Al(150 nm) [10]
Colour Green green light emitting device
Max. Luminance 66,820 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 40.5 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 23.7 lm W1  
Device structure Al/MoO3 (3 nm)/mCP (50 nm)/Ir(tfmppy)2(tpip)* (0.5 nm)/TPBi (2.5 nm)/mCP (2.5 nm)/Ir(tfmppy)2(tpip) (0.5 nm)/TPBi (10 nm)/Bphen (45 nm)/Liq (1 nm)/Al (1 nm)/Ag (22 nm)/mCP (80 nm) [11]
Colour Green green light emitting device
Max. Current Efficiency 126.3 cd/A
Device structure  ITO/m-MTDATA (30 nm)/NPB (20 nm)/TPBI:4 wt% Ir(ppy)3:2 wt%Ir(piq)2(acac) (30 nm)/ Alq3 (20 nm)/LiF/Al [12]
Colour White white light emitting device
Max. Luminance 33,012 cd/m2
Current Efficiency@100  cd/m2 15.3 cd/A
Max. Powder Efficiency 10.7 lm W1

*For chemical structure information please refer to the cited references


Grade Order Code Quantity Price
Sublimed (>99.5% purity) M651 250 mg £210
Unsublimed (>98.0% purity) M652 500 mg £220
Sublimed (>99.5% purity) M651 500 mg £330
Unsublimed (>98.0% purity) M652 1 g £350
Sublimed (>99.5% purity) M651 1 g £520

MSDS Documentation


Literature and Reviews

  1. Highly efficient single-layer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with balanced charge transport, T. D. Anthopoulos et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 4824 (2003); doi: 10.1063/1.1586999.
  2. High efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a low roll-off at high brightness, J. Wang et al., Org. Electronics, 14, 2854–2858 (2013).
  3. Improved Hole-Blocking and Electron Injection Using a TPBI Interlayer at the Cathode Interface of OLEDs, J. Lian et al., Chin. Phys. Lett., 28, 047803 (2011).
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