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2,2',2''-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole), TPBi, being electron deficient, is normally used as electron transport layer material in optoelectronic devices. Having a low LUMO energy level (2.7 eV), TPBi is also used as host material for both fluorescent and phosphorescent light emitting systems.
In some cases, TPBI is used to replace CBP (HBL)/Alq3 (ETL) to simplify the device structure for its excellent electron transporting and also its hole blocking abilities with very deep HOMO energy level (HOMO = 6.2/6.7 eV). It has also been reported that TPBi could be used as electron injection layer material between Alq3 (ETL) and Cs2O3/Al (electrode). It suggested that TPBI thin layer at the Alq3/Cs2O3 interface facilitates the electron injection and is also involved with hole-blocking and exciton confinement .
Highly efficient single-layer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with balanced charge transport, T. D. Anthopoulos et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 4824 (2003); doi: 10.1063/1.1586999.
High efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a low roll-off at high brightness, J. Wang et al., Org. Electronics, 14, 2854–2858 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2013.08.006.
Improved Hole-Blocking and Electron Injection Using a TPBI Interlayer at the Cathode Interface of OLEDs, J. Lian et al., Chin. Phys. Lett., 28, 047803 (2011). http://iopscience.iop.org/0256-307X/28/4/047803.
Improving light efficiency of white polymer light emitting diodes by introducing the TPBi exciton protection layer, S. B. Shin et al., Thin Solid Films 517, 4143–4146 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2009.02.027.
High-efficiency deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes based on a thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter, S. Wu et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, 2, 421 (2014). DOI: 10.1039/c3tc31936a.
Co-Host Comprising Hole-Transporting and Blue-Emitting Components for Efficient Fluorescent White OLEDs, Y-C. Chen et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 159 (4) J127-J131 (2012); doi: 10.1149/2.092204jes.
Fluorene co-polymers with high efficiency deep blue electroluminescence, J. Santos et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, 3, 2479 (2015); DOI: 10.1039/c4tc02766c.
High efficiency and low efficiency roll off in white phosphorescent organic lightemitting diodes by managing host structures, K. S. Yook et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 193308 (2008); doi: 10.1063/1.2929742.
High efficiency green phosphorescent organic light emitting device with (TCTA/TCTA0.5TPBi0.5/TPBi): Ir(ppy)3 emission layer, J. G. Jang et al., Thin Solid Films 517, 4122–4126 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2009.02.015.
Double-emission-layer green phosphorescent OLED based on LiF-doped TPBi as electron transport layer for improving efficiency and operational lifetime, Q. Yang et al., Syn. Metals 162, 398– 401 (2012). doi:10.1016/j.synthmet.2011.12.027.
High efficiency green phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting diode with ultrathin non-doped emissive layer, X. Shi et al., Org. Electronics, 15, 2408–2413 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2014.07.001.
High-efficiency electrophosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices with a double-doped emissive layer, W. Xie et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 326–329 (2005); doi:10.1088/0268-1242/20/3/013.
Suppressing Efficiency Roll-Off at High Current Densities for Ultra-Bright Green Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes, C. Zou et al., ACS Nano, 14, 6076−6086 (2020); DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c01817.
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