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1,3-Bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene, known as mCP, with a high triplet energy (ET = 2.91 eV) and a very deep highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level, is often used as host materials for efficient blue phosphorescent light-emitting diodes. Kawamura et al. demonstrated that the photoluminescence internal quantum yield of the blue emitter of FIrpic could approach nearly 100% when doped into the wide energy gap host of mCP .
100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films, Y. Kawamura et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071104 (2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1862777.
Above 30% External Quantum Efficiency in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Pyrido[2,3- b]indole Derivatives as Host Materials, C. Lee et al., Adv. Mater., 25, 5450–5454 (2013).
Efficient organic light-emitting devices with platinum-complex emissive layer, X. Yang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 033302 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3541447.
Engineering of Mixed Host for High External Quantum Efficiency above 25% in Green Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Device, B. Kim et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 24, 3970–3977 (2014).
Improved color stability in white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using charge confining structure without interlayer, S-H. Kim et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123509 (2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2786853.
Manipulating Charges and Excitons within aSingle-Host System to Accomplish Efficiency/CRI/Color-Stability Trade-off for High-PerformanceOWLEDs, Q. Wang et al., Adv. Mater., 21, 2397–2401 (2009).
Single emissive layer white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed iridium complexes, W. Cho et al., Dyes and Pigments, 108, 115-120 (2014), doi:10.1016/j.dyepig.2014.04.033.
Wide-Energy-Gap Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes, S. Ye et al., Chem. Mater., 21 (7), 1333–1342 (2014).
High efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using carbazole-type triplet exciton blocking layer, S. Kim et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 90, 223505 (2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2742788.
Deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with excellent external quantum efficiency, J. Park et al., Org. Electronics, 14 (12), 3228-3233 (2013), doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2013.09.017.
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