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Product Code M721-100mg
Price $413 ex. VAT

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Ir(ppz)3, EBL for organic electronic devices

Doped Ir(ppz)3 used to enhance low wavelength optical-absorption capacity

Tris(phenylpyrazole)iridium, known as Ir(ppz)3, features a small lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of around 1.6 eV. It has been normally used as an electron-blocking layer (EBL) in organic light-emitting diodes and other organic electronic devices (e.g. organic photovoltaics)

It has also been reported that Ir(ppz)3 doping can enhance low wavelength optical-absorption capacity, and that doping a small amount of Ir(ppz)3 can also improve the crystallinity of P3HT. Moreover, the large energy barrier between Ir(ppz)3 and the polymer active layer (which can reduce the electron current densities and increase the hole current densities) indicates a more balanced carrier transport based on hole- and electron-only devices [2].

Literature and Reviews

  1. Blue and Near-UV Phosphorescence from Iridium Complexes with Cyclometalated Pyrazolyl or N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands, T. Sajoto et al., Inorg. Chem., 44 (22), 7992-8003(2005); DOI: 10.1021/ic051296i.
  2. Performance Improvement in Poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-Phenyl C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Polymer Solar Cell by Doping Wide-Gap Material Tris(phenylpyrazole)iridium, C-S. Ho et al., Appl. Phys. Express 6, 042301 (2013);
  3. Flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light-emitting diodes with highly luminous performances and extremely stable chromaticity, H. Shi et al., Org. Electronics 15 (2014) 1465–1475; doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2014.03.031.
  4. Hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes with improved color stability and negligible efficiency roll-off based on blue fluorescence and yellow phosphorescence, X. Wang et al., J. Luminescene, 137, 59–63 (2013);
  5. Luminous efficiency enhancement in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with an electron confinement layers, J-S. Kang et al., Optical Materials 47, 78–82 (2015); doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2015.07.003.
  6. Towards Highly Efficient Blue-Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Low Operating Voltage and Excellent Efficiency Stability, C. Han et al., Chem. Eur. J., 17, 445 – 449 (2011); DOI: 10.1002/chem.201001981.
  7. Tailoring the Efficiencies and Spectra of White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with the Interlayers, G. Xie et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 264–269; DOI: 10.1021/jp107319e.
  8. Highly efficient and color-stable white organic light-emitting diode based on a novel blue phosphorescent host, Q. Wu et al., Syn. Metals 187, 160– 164 (2014);

General Information

CAS Number 562824-31-1
Chemical Formula C27H21IrN6
Molecular Weight 621.71 g/mol
Absorption λmax 321 nm (2-MeTHF) [1]
Fluorescence λem 414 nm (2-MeTHF)
HOMO/LUMO HOMO = 5.0 eV, LUMO = 1.6 eV



Classification / Family Iridium complex, Electron blocking layer (EBL) materials, Hole transport layer (HTL) materials, Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs), Organic photovoltaics, Organic electronics

*Measurable with the Ossila Optical Spectrometer, see more on Spectrometers and Spectroscopy Accessories.

Product Details

Purity >99.5% (sublimed)
Melting point N/A
Appearance Light yellow powder/crystals

Sublimation is a technique used to obtain ultra pure-grade chemicals, see sublimed materials.

Chemical Structure

Chemical structure of Ir(PPZ)3
Chemical structure of Tris(phenylpyrazole)iridium

Device Structure(s)

Device structure ITO/PSS:PEDOT/P3HT:PCBM:0.1 wt% Ir(ppz)3/LiF/Al [2]
JSC (mA cm-2) 11.8
VOC (V) 0.61
FF (%) 59
PCE 4.24
Device structure  Ag (80 nm)/MoO3 (2 nm)/MeO-TPD*:3 wt% F4-TCNQ (30 nm)/MeO-TPD (10 nm)/Ir(PPZ)3 (10 nm)/TCTA:8 wt% FIrpic:2% PO-01 (12 nm)/SPPO1:8 wt% FIrpic (15 nm)/BPhen (10 nm)/Bphen:3 wt% Li (20 nm)/Ag (14 nm) [3]
Colour white light emitting device White
Max. Luminance 23,340 cd/m2
Max. Power Efficiency 15.39 lm W−1
Max. Current Efficiency 24.49 cd/A
Turn-on Voltage 3.1 V
Device structure ITO/m-MTDATA (45nm)/Ir(ppz)3 (10 nm)/CBP:PO-01 (5 nm,6wt%)/Ir(ppz)3 (1 nm)/MADN: DSA-Ph* (25 nm,5wt%)/ BPhen (50 nm)/LiF(1nm)/Al(100 nm) [4]
Colour white light emitting device White
Current Efficiency 21.0 cd/A@2, 300 cd/m2
20.1 cd/A@9, 300 cd/m2
CIE (0.41,0.46) to (0.40,0.46) over 103 – 104 cd/m2
Device structure ITO (180 nm)/TAPC (60 nm)/mCP:Firpic–8 wt% (10 nm)/Ir(ppz)3 (1.5 nm)/mCP:Firpic–8 wt% (10 nm)/Ir(ppz)3 (1.5 nm)/mCP:Firpic–8 wt% (10 nm)/TPBi (30 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (120 nm) [5]
Colour blue light emitting device Blue
Luminance@200 cd/m2 32,570 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 43.76 cd/A
Max. EQE 23.4%
Max. Power Efficiency 21.4 lm W−1 
Device structure ITO/MoOx (2 nm)/m-MTDATA:- MoOx (3:1, 10 nm)/m-MTDATA (30 nm)/Ir(ppz)3 (10 nm)/DBFPPO:FIrpic (10:1, 10 nm)/3TPYMB (10 nm)/BPhen (30 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al [6]
Colour blue light emitting device Blue
Max. Current Efficiency 35.5 cd/A
Max. EQE 15.5%
Device structure ITO/m-MTDATA: MoOx (10 nm, 15 wt %)/m-MTDATA (30 nm)/Ir(ppz)3 (15 nm)/ mCP:FIrpic (5 nm, 10 wt %)/BPhen (2 nm)/mCP:(FBT)2Ir(acac) (5 nm, 6 wt %)/BPhen (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/ Al (100 nm) [7]
Colour white light emitting device White
EQE@10 mA/cm2 12.5 %
CIE (0.27 ± 0.01, 0.40 ± 0.01) over 103 – 104 cd/m2
Device structure ITO/MoOx (2 nm)/m-MTDATA: MoOx (30 nm, 15 wt.%)/m-MTDATA
(10 nm)/Ir(ppz)3 (10 nm)/CBP:PO-01* (3 nm, 6 wt.%)/Ir(ppz)3(1 nm)/DBFDPOPhCz*:FIrpic (10 nm,10 wt.%)/Bphen (36 nm)/LiF
(1 nm)/Al [8]
Colour white light emitting device White
Max. EQE 12.2%
Max. Current Efficiency 42.4 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 47.6 lm W−1

*For chemical structure information please refer to the cited references.


hplc irppz3
HPLC trace of Ir(PPZ)3 - Tris(phenylpyrazole)iridium


Grade Order Code Quantity Price
Sublimed (>99% purity) M721 100 mg £330
Sublimed (>99% purity) M721 250 mg £660
Sublimed (>99% purity) M721 500 mg £1200
Sublimed (>99% purity) M721 1 g £2100

MSDS Documentation

Ir(ppz)3 MSDSIr(ppz)3 MSDS Sheet

To the best of our knowledge the information provided here is accurate. The values provided are typical at the time of manufacture and may vary over time and from batch to batch. Products may have minor cosmetic differences (e.g. to the branding) compared to the photos on our website. All products are for laboratory and research and development use only.

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