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1,4,5,8,9,11-Hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile, also known as HAT-CN, is one of the members of the 1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene (HAT) family, which have an electron-deficient, rigid, planar, aromatic discotic system with an excellent π–π stacking ability. For this reason, HAT-CN finds applications in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) serving either as the hole-injection layer (HIL) or charge-generation layer (CGL) material.
It has been proven that using HAT-CN as a hole injection layer (HIL) material can dramatically enhance the performance of solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes . Lin et al further demonstrated that the external quantum efficiency, current efficiency, and power efficiency of the HAT-CN based devices were higher than or almost similar to those of optimised PEDOT:PSS-based devices. Solution-processed HAT-CN is promising as a novel alternative to conventional PEDOT:PSS HILs, due to its efficient carrier-injection capability and the capacity to prevent interfacial mixing and erosion during fabrication.
Highly efficient and stable tandem organic light-emitting devices based on HAT-CN/HAT-CN:TAPC/TAPC as a charge generation layer, Y. Dai et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, 3, 6809-6814 (2015);DOI: 10.1039/C4TC02875A.
Solution-processed hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as a universal hole-injection layer for organic light-emitting diodes, H. Lin et al., Org. Electronics 14, 1204–1210 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2013.02.011.
Bipolar host materials for high efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes: tuning the HOMO/LUMO levels without reducing the triplet energy in a linear system, L. Cui et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, 1, 8177-8185 (2013); DOI: 10.1039/C3TC31675K.
Highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using a homoleptic iridium(III) complex as a sky-blue dopant, J. Zhuang et al., Org. Electronics 14, 2596–2601 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2013.06.029.
High-Performance Hybrid Buffer Layer Using 1,4,5,8,9,11-Hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile/Molybdenum Oxide in Inverted Top-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diodes, C-H. Park et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7 (11), 6047–6053 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/am5091066.
Multilayered graphene anode for blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes, J. Hwang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 133304 (2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3697639.
Highly efficient and color-stable hybrid warm white organic light-emitting diodes using a blue material with thermally activated delayed fluorescence, D. Zhang et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, 2, 8191-8197 (2014); DOI: 10.1039/c4tc01289e.
High efficiency red top-emitting micro-cavity organic light emitting diodes, M. Park et al., 22, (17), Optics Express, 19919 (2014), DOI:10.1364/OE.22.019919.
Highly Efficient Simplified Single-Emitting-Layer Hybrid WOLEDs with Low Roll-off and Good Color Stability through Enhanced Förster Energy Transfer, D. Zhang et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7 (51), 28693–28700 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b10783
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