Order Code: M521
Price excludes taxes
Not in stock (price excludes taxes)


 Batch Quantity Price
M521/M522 100 mg £189
M521/M522 250 mg £378
M521/M522 500 mg £615.5
M521/M522 1 g £976.8

General Information

CAS number 472960-35-3
Chemical formula (C22H21N)n
Molecular weight

M521: Mw = 100,000-150,000 (High Mw over 100 KDa)

M522: Mw = 44,797, Mn = 25,374 (PDI = 1.77)

HOMO / LUMO HOMO 5.2 eV      LUMO 2.3 eV [1] 
Recommended solvents

M521: Chlorobenzene

M522: Toluene, THF, Chloroform



Poly(4-butylphenyldiphenylamine), polytpd

    Classification / Family Poly(triarylamines), Organic semiconducting materials, Hole transport layer materials (HTL), Electron block layer material (EBL), Organic Photovoltaics, Polymer Solar Cells, Light-emitting Diodes, Quantun Dot Light-emitting Diodes, OFETs and Perovskite hole transport layer materials.


    chemical structure of polytpd
    Chemical structure of PolyTPD. CAS No. 472960-35-3.



    Poly(N,N'-bis-4-butylphenyl-N,N'-bisphenyl)benzidine, also known as polyTPD, is an excellent hole transport layer material used in photovoltaics such as perovskite solar cells. It has also proven polyTPD is a promising candidate HTL in multilayer WPLEDs because its HOMO level 5.2 eV is very close to the work function of the indium tin oxide ITO/PEDOT:PSS anode.

    As the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of polyTPD matches well with the VB of the perovskite, which allows for a good transport of holes towards the polyTPD, it is a popular semiconducting material candidate that is used in the HTL of the perovskite structures. And also as the LUMO of polyTPD is significantly closer to vacuum compared with that of the perovskite CB, polyTPD efficiently blocks the flow of electrons [5].

    Like PTAA, polyTPD is one of the family members of poly(triaryl)amines.


    Device structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:polyTPD (1:1 wt%) 50 nm/PFO:MEH-PPV*(95.5:0.5 wt%) 70 nm/Ca/Al [4]                  
    Colour White  white
    Max. Luminance ~ 5,000 cd/m2
    Max. Current Efficiency 3.15 cd/A
    Device structure ITO/P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) (1000 nm)/poly-TPD:F4TCNQ (7%, 70 nm)/ PVK:OXD-7:Ir(ppy)3 (150 nm)/TmPyPB (40 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (150 nm) [7]
    Colour Green green
    Max. Luminance 13,800 cd/m2
    Max. Current Efficiency 76.2 cd/A
    Max. Power Efficiency 17.1 lm W1
    Device structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS (30 nm)/poly-TPD(40 nm)/ DNA-CTMA*(20 nm)/ PFO:MEH-PPV (70 nm)/Cs2CO3(1 – 2 nm)/Al [2]
    Colour White  white
    Max. Luminance 10,500 cd/m2
    Max. Current Efficiency 10 cd/A

    *For chemical structure informations please refer to the cited references

    Device structure


    PCBM/C60/BCP/Ag [6]


    PCBM/C60/BCP/Ag [6]

    JSC (mA cm-2) 22.0 11.3
    VOC (V) 1.0 (1.1a) 0.79
    FF (%) 69.7 62.7
    PCE (best) 15.3 5.58

    PolyTPD as a HTL to compare with PDOT:PSS a) 1.0 V in the supporting information and 1.1 V in the body txt of the cited lit. [6]


    Literature and Reviews

    1. Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots, Q. Sun et al., Nat. Photonics, 1, 717 - 722 (2007); doi:10.1038/nphoton.2007.226.
    2. Multilayer white polymer light-emitting diodes with deoxyribonucleic acid-cetyltrimetylammonium complex as a hole-transporting/electronblocking layer, Q. Sun et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 251108 (2008); doi: 10.1063/1.2948864.
    3. Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells, Q. Lin et al., Nat. Photonics, 9, 106–112 (2015); doi:10.1038/nphoton.2014.284.
    4. Enhanced performance of white polymer light-emitting diodes using polymer blends as hole-transporting layers, Q. Sun et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 153501 (2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2360248.
    5. Perovskite solar cells employing organic charge-transport layers, O. Malinkiewicz et al., Nat. Photonics 8, 128–132 (2014); doi:10.1038/nphoton.2013.341.
    6. High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with a Polymer Hole Transport Layer, D. Zhao et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 5, 1401855 (2015); DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401855.
    7. Solution-Processed Highly Efficient Alternating CurrentDriven Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent Devices Employing High- k Relaxor Ferroelectric Polymer Dielectric, Y. Chen et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 24, 1501–1508 (2014); DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201302587.
    8. Pure Formamidinium-Based Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with High Efficiency and Low Driving Voltage, L. Meng et al., Adv. Mater., 29, 1603826 (2017); DOI: 10.1002/adma.201603826.