BCP - Bathocuproine

Order Code: B232
MSDS sheet


(excluding Taxes)



 Grade Order Code Quantity Price
Unsublimed (>99.7% purity) B232 1 g £48
Sublimed (>99.8% purity) B231 1 g
Unsublimed (>99.7% purity) B232 5 g £226
Sublimed (>99.8% purity) B231 5 g £399


General Information

Full name 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline
  • Bathocuproine
  • BCP
CAS number 4733-39-5
Molecular formula C26H20N2
Molecular weight 360.45 g/mol
HOMO / LUMO HOMO ~6.4 eV      LUMO ~2.9 eV
Classification / Family

Electron-transport layer materials, Electron-injection layer materials, Hole-blocking layer materials, OFET, OLED, Organic Photovoltaics, Perovskite solar cells, Sublimed materials.


Product Details

Purity >99.8% (sublimed) >99.7% (unsublimed)
Melting point 280-282°C (lit.)
Appearance Light yellow powder

*Sublimation is a technique used to obtain ultra pure-grade chemicals. For more details about sublimation, please refer to the Sublimed Materials for OLED devices page.

Chemical Structure

chemical structure of bathocuproine, CAS number 4733-39-5
Chemical Structure of Bathocuproine (BCP); CAS No. 4733-39-5; Chemical Formula C26H20N2.



2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, also known as Bathocuproine (BCP), is a wide-band-gap material and has a high electron affinity. When it is embedded into organic electronic devices, bathocuproine acts as an exciton-blocking barrier which prohibits exciton diffusion process towards the Al electrode otherwise being quenched. One of the most commonly used buffer layer between acceptor and cathode layers is bathocuproine. The introduction of the buffer layer can greatly improve the PCE of polymer organic solar cells. BCP is one of the most popular hole-blocking layer materials that is used in organic electronics, including perovskite solar cells.

It was demonstrated that a BCP buffer layer reduces nonradiative recombination of excitons at the C60 –Al interface. Its most important function is to establish an Ohmic contact between the C60 film and the Al electrode in photovoltaic devices [4].

Device structure ITO/DNTPD* (60 nm)/NPB (20 nm)/mCP (10 nm)/mCP:FIrpic (25 nm)/CBP:Ir(piq)2acac (5 nm)/BCP (5 nm)/Alq3 (20 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm) [5]
Colour White white
EQE@500 cd/m2 8.2 %
Current Efficiency (@500  cd/m2) 12.7 lm W1

Device structure ITO/NPB (30 nm)/NPB: DCJTB: C545T* (10 nm)/NPB (4 nm)/DNA (8 nm)/BCP (9 nm)/Alq3 (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm) [6]
Colour White white
Max. Luminance  13,600 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 12.3 cd/A
Max. Power Efficiency 4.4 lm W1
Device structure ITO/2T-NATA (17 nm)/TPAHQZn* (25 nm)/NPBX* (15 nm)/BCP (8 nm)/ Alq3 (35 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al (120 nm) [7]
Colour White   white
Max. EQE                         17.5%
Max. Luminance 12,930 cd/m(12 V) 
Max. Current Efficiency 2.66 cd/A (10 V)

Device structure ITO/ NPB(60 nm)/Alq3:DCM(7nm)/BCP(12 nm)/ Alq3(36nm)/ MgAg(200 nm) [8]
Colour Red red
Max. Luminance 1, 000 cd/m2
Max. Current Efficiency 5.66 cd/A 

Device structure ITO/α-NPD* (50 nm)/7%-Ir(ppy)3:CBP (20 nm)/BCP (10 nm)/Alq3 (40 nm)/Mg–Ag (100 nm)/Ag (20 nm)  [9]
Colour Green green
Max EQE (12.0±0.6)%
Max. Powder Efficiency (45±2) lm W1

*For chemical structure information please refer to the cited references.




HPLC trace of Bathocuproine (BCP).


1H NMR BCP Bathocuproine in CDCl3

1H NMR spectrum of 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenantroline, also known as Bathocuproine, BCP in CDCl3: Instrument AVIIIHD400 (see full version).


Literature and Reviews

    1. Detailed analysis of bathocuproine layer for organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine and C60, J. Huang et al., J. Appl. Phys., 105, 073105 (2009)
    2. On the Role of Bathocuproine in Organic Photovoltaic Cells, H. Gommans et al., Adv. Funct. Mater., 18, 3686-3691 (2008)
    3. A Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode, Y. Kijima et al., J. Appl. Phys., 38, 5274-5277 (1999)
    4. On the function of a bathocuproine buffer layer in organic photovoltaic cells, M. Vogel et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 163501 (2006).
    5. Improved color stability in white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using charge confining structure without interlayer, S-H. Kim et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123509 (2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2786853.
    6. High efficiency white organic light-emitting devices by effectively controlling exciton recombination region, F. Guo et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 310–313 (2005).
    7. White organic light-emitting devices based on novel (E)-2-(4-(diphenylamino) styryl)quinolato zinc as a hole- transporting emitter, G. Ding et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 025016 (2009); stacks.iop.org/SST/24/025016.
    8. High-efficiency red electroluminescence from a narrow recombination zone confined by an organic double heterostructure, Z. Xie et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 79, 1048 (2001); doi: 10.1063/1.1390479.
    9. Efficient electrophosphorescence using a doped ambipolar conductive molecular organic thin film, C. Adachi et aL., Org. Electronics, 2(1), 37-43 (2001), doi:10.1016/S1566-1199(01)00010-6.
    10. Matching Charge Extraction Contact for Wide-Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells, Y. Lin et al., adv. Mater., 1700607 (2017); DOI: 10.1002/adma.201700607.