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Product Code M591-50g
Price $375 ex. VAT

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4-tert-Butylpyridine, high purity semiconducting molecule

An additive in electrolytes of DSSCs and used in HTL materials of PSCs


Together with our ultra pure LiTFSi and sublimed Spiro-MeOTAD, 4-tert-Butylpyridine (also with high purity over 98.0%) is an ideal candidate for your perovskite solar cells research.

General Information

CAS number 3978-81-2
Chemical formula C9H13N
Molecular weight 135.21 g/mol
HOMO/LUMO HOMO 5.9 eV, LUMO 2.4 eV
Synonyms TBP, Pyridine 4-tert-butyl
Classification / Family Pyridine Derivatives, Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells (DSSC), OLEDs, Perovskite HTL Materials, Electrolyte materials.

Product Details

Purity > 98.0%
Boiling point 196-197 °C (lit.)
Density 0.923 g/mL at 25 °C
Colour Light yellow clear liquid

Chemical Structure

chemical structure of 4-tert-butylpyridine
Chemical structure of 4-tert-Butylpyridine, CAS No.3978-81-2

Applications

4-tert-Butylpyridine (TBP) is widely used as additive in electrolytes of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) and in hole transport layer materials (HTL) of polymer photovoltaics and perovskite solar cells.

Despite the high volatility and unpleasant smell, 4-tert-butylpyridine is usually added into HTM to suppress charge-recombination and further improve the properties of HTM and ensure the high efficiency perovskite solar cells. It has been demonstrated that the flexible and facile use of 4-tert-Butylpyridine can improve the crystallinity of perovskite, PCEs of CH3NH3PbI3-based PSCs were improved from 6.71% to 10.62% (i.e., 58% enhancement) [1].

By introduction of Li-TFSI/TBP additives in poly-3-hexylthiophene HTM for CH3NH3PbI3/P3HT perovskite mesoscopic solar cells, great enhancement of the device efficiency from 5.7% to 13.7% was achieved [2].

Device structure

CH3NH3PbI3-based planar PSCs without TBP* [1]

CH3NH3PbI3-based planar PSCs with TBP [1]

JSC (mA cm-2) 17.12 21.27
VOC (V) 0.92 0.96
FF (%) 43 52
PCE (best) 6.71 10.62
Device structure

FTO/bl-TiO2/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/ P3HT:LiTFSI/Au [2]

FTO/bl-TiO2/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/ P3HT:LiTFSI:TBP/Au [2]

JSC (mA cm-2) 15.5 20.1
VOC (V) 0.67 0.92
FF (%) 55 74
PCE (best) 5.7 13.7

*4-tert-Butylpyridine as an additive resulted in orientational and better crystallinity

Characterisation (NMR and HPLC)

4-tert-butylpyridine, TBP, 3978-81-2
HPLC trace of 4-tert-Butylpyridine (TPB; CAS No. 3978-81-2)
1H NMR 4-tert-butylpyridine, tbp
1H NMR of 4-tert-Butylpyridine (TPB) in CDCl3.

Literature and Reviews

  1. Effects of 4-tert-butylpyridine on perovskite formation and performance of solution-processed perovskite solar cells, Y. Shi et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 3, 22191-22198 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C5TA05988G.
  2. CH3NH3PbI3/poly-3-hexylthiophen perovskite mesoscopic solar cells: Performance enhancement by Li-assisted hole conduction, J-H. Heo et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 8, No. 10, 816–821 (2014). DOI 10.1002/pssr.201409330.
  3. Influence of alkylpyridine additives in electrolyte solution on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell, H. Kusama et al., Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 80, 167–179 (2003). doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2003.08.001.
  4. A dual functional additive for the HTM layer in perovskite solar cells, H. Zhang et al., Chem. Commun., 50, 5020–5022 (2014). DOI: 10.1039/C3CC49458F.

To the best of our knowledge the information provided here is accurate. The values provided are typical at the time of manufacture and may vary over time and from batch to batch. Products may have minor cosmetic differences (e.g. to the branding) compared to the photos on our website. All products are for laboratory and research and development use only.

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