|Molecular weight||135.21 g/mol|
|HOMO/LUMO||HOMO 5.9 eV, LUMO 2.4 eV|
|Synonyms||TBP, Pyridine 4-tert-butyl|
|Classification / Family||Pyridine Derivatives, Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells (DSSC), OLEDs, Perovskite HTL Materials, Electrolyte materials.|
|Boiling point||196-197 °C (lit.)|
|Density||0.923 g/mL at 25 °C|
|Colour||Light yellow clear liquid|
4-tert-Butylpyridine (TBP) is widely used as additive in electrolytes of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) and in hole transport layer materials (HTL) of polymer photovoltaics and perovskite solar cells.
Despite the high volatility and unpleasant smell, 4-tert-butylpyridine is usually added into HTM to suppress charge-recombination and further improve the properties of HTM and ensure the high efficiency perovskite solar cells. It has been demonstrated that the flexible and facile use of 4-tert-Butylpyridine can improve the crystallinity of perovskite, PCEs of CH3NH3PbI3-based PSCs were improved from 6.71% to 10.62% (i.e., 58% enhancement) .
By introduction of Li-TFSI/TBP additives in poly-3-hexylthiophene HTM for CH3NH3PbI3/P3HT perovskite mesoscopic solar cells, great enhancement of the device efficiency from 5.7% to 13.7% was achieved .
CH3NH3PbI3-based planar PSCs without TBP* 
CH3NH3PbI3-based planar PSCs with TBP 
|JSC (mA cm-2)||17.12||21.27|
FTO/bl-TiO2/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/ P3HT:LiTFSI/Au 
FTO/bl-TiO2/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/ P3HT:LiTFSI:TBP/Au 
|JSC (mA cm-2)||15.5||20.1|
*4-tert-Butylpyridine as an additive resulted in orientational and better crystallinity
Characterisation (NMR and HPLC)
Literature and Reviews
- Effects of 4-tert-butylpyridine on perovskite formation and performance of solution-processed perovskite solar cells, Y. Shi et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 3, 22191-22198 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C5TA05988G.
- CH3NH3PbI3/poly-3-hexylthiophen perovskite mesoscopic solar cells: Performance enhancement by Li-assisted hole conduction, J-H. Heo et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 8, No. 10, 816–821 (2014). DOI 10.1002/pssr.201409330.
- Influence of alkylpyridine additives in electrolyte solution on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell, H. Kusama et al., Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 80, 167–179 (2003). doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2003.08.001.
- A dual functional additive for the HTM layer in perovskite solar cells, H. Zhang et al., Chem. Commun., 50, 5020–5022 (2014). DOI: 10.1039/C3CC49458F.
To the best of our knowledge the technical information provided here is accurate. However, Ossila assume no liability for the accuracy of this information. The values provided here are typical at the time of manufacture and may vary over time and from batch to batch.