|Molecular weight||135.21 g/mol|
|HOMO/LUMO||HOMO 5.9 eV, LUMO 2.4 eV|
|Synonyms||TBP, Pyridine 4-tert-butyl|
|Classification / Family||Pyridine Derivatives, Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells (DSSC), OLEDs, Perovskite HTL Materials, Electrolyte materials.|
|Boiling point||196-197 °C (lit.)|
|Density||0.923 g/mL at 25 °C|
|Colour||Light yellow clear liquid|
4-tert-Butylpyridine (TBP) is widely used as additive in electrolytes of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) and in hole transport layer materials (HTL) of polymer photovoltaics and perovskite solar cells.
Despite the high volatility and unpleasant smell, 4-tert-butylpyridine is usually added into HTM to suppress charge-recombination and further improve the properties of HTM and ensure the high efficiency perovskite solar cells. It has been demonstrated that the flexible and facile use of 4-tert-Butylpyridine can improve the crystallinity of perovskite, PCEs of CH3NH3PbI3-based PSCs were improved from 6.71% to 10.62% (i.e., 58% enhancement) .
By introduction of Li-TFSI/TBP additives in poly-3-hexylthiophene HTM for CH3NH3PbI3/P3HT perovskite mesoscopic solar cells, great enhancement of the device efficiency from 5.7% to 13.7% was achieved .
CH3NH3PbI3-based planar PSCs without TBP* 
CH3NH3PbI3-based planar PSCs with TBP 
|JSC (mA cm-2)||17.12||21.27|
FTO/bl-TiO2/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/ P3HT:LiTFSI/Au 
FTO/bl-TiO2/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/ P3HT:LiTFSI:TBP/Au 
|JSC (mA cm-2)||15.5||20.1|
*4-tert-Butylpyridine as an additive resulted in orientational and better crystallinity
Characterisation (NMR and HPLC)
Literature and Reviews
- Effects of 4-tert-butylpyridine on perovskite formation and performance of solution-processed perovskite solar cells, Y. Shi et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 3, 22191-22198 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C5TA05988G.
- CH3NH3PbI3/poly-3-hexylthiophen perovskite mesoscopic solar cells: Performance enhancement by Li-assisted hole conduction, J-H. Heo et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 8, No. 10, 816–821 (2014). DOI 10.1002/pssr.201409330.
- Influence of alkylpyridine additives in electrolyte solution on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell, H. Kusama et al., Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 80, 167–179 (2003). doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2003.08.001.
- A dual functional additive for the HTM layer in perovskite solar cells, H. Zhang et al., Chem. Commun., 50, 5020–5022 (2014). DOI: 10.1039/C3CC49458F.
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