PDINO, bearing amino N-oxide group on perylenediimide (PDI) with π-delocalized planar structures and high electron affinities, is widely used as cathode interlayer materials. While working great with Al as the cathode, PDINO also allow high work function metals (such as Au and Ag) to act as efficient cathodes.
With a measured conductivity of 7.6 × 10-5 S/cm, PDINO has four orders of magnitude higher than that of the well-known cathode interlayer PFN (6.9 × 10-9 S/cm). Organic photovoltaic cell with 17% efficiency was achieved with PDINO as the cathode interlayer material by employing PBDB-TF (PM6):BTP-4Cl-12 (Y7-BO) as the active layer.
Device structure: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PBDB-TF (PM6):BTP-4Cl-12 (Y7-BO)/PDINO/Al 
|Thickness (nm)||VOC (V)||JSC (mA cm-2)||FF (%)||PCE (%)|
|Full name||N,N'-Bis(N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine oxide)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide|
|Purity||98% (1H NMR)|
|Molecular weight||592.64 g/mol|
|HOMO / LUMO||HOMO = -6.21 eV LUMO = -3.63 eV |
|Melting point||103.4 °C (TGA, 5% weight loss)|
|Form||Reddish brown powder/crystals|
|Absorption||λmax 468 nm (film)|
|Solubility/processing solvents||Methanol, ethanol, trifluoroethanol
|Classification / Family||Perylene diimide (PDI), Organic semiconducting materials, Organic Photovoltaics, OLED, Small molecule electrolyte|
Literature and Reviews
- Cathode engineering with perylene-diimide interlayer enabling over 17% efficiency single-junction organic solar cells, J. Yao et al., Nat. Commun., 11:2726 (2020); DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-16509-w.
- Perylene diimides: a thickness-insensitive cathode interlayer for high performance polymer solar cells, Z. Zhang et al., Environ. Sci., 7, 1966 (2014); DOI: 10.1039/c4ee00022f.
- Organic photovoltaic cell with 17% efficiency and superior processability, Y. Cui et al., Natl Sci Rev, 7(7), 1239–1246 (2020); DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwz200.
- A non-fullerene small molecule processed with green solvent as an electron transporting material for high efficiency p-i-n perovskite solar cells, J. Miao et al., Org. Electonics, 52, 200-205 (2018); DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2017.10.028.
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