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Perovskite Quantum Dots

Product Code M2124A1
Price $59.00 ex. VAT

High purity, high PLQY Perovskite Quantum Dots

Caesium lead perovskite quantum dots of chloride/bromide, bromide, and iodide now available

Perovskite quantum dots are semiconducting nanocrystals. Compared to metal chalcogenide quantum dots, perovskite quantum dots are more tolerant to defects and have excellent photoluminescence quantum yields and high colour purity. These properties are highly desirable for electronic and optoelectronic applications and hence perovskite quantum dots have huge potential for real world applications including LED displays and quantum dot solar cells.

Ossila supplies high quality, low price perovskite quantum dots from £45.00.

Caesium lead perovskite quantum dots of chloride/bromide (450 nm, blue), bromide (520-530 nm nm, green) and iodide (685 nm, red) are now available.

Full spectrum perovskite quantum dots
Full spectrum range of perovskite quantum dots coming soon

A quantum dot (QD), or semiconducting nanocrystal (NC), is a single crystal of a semiconducting material measuring only a few nanometres in diameter. When excited, the small size of the crystal acts a ‘quantum box’ and confines electrons and holes in an volume smaller than the corresponding exciton Bohr radius. The smaller the dot, the greater the confinement energy and the higher the energy of photons that are absorbed or emitted. 

The most well-studied quantum dots are metal chalcogenide quantum dots based on semiconductors such as cadmium selenide, indium phosphide or Lead(II)sulfide. The bandgap of such quantum dots can be tuned throughout the entire visible spectrum simply by changing their size during chemical synthesis.

For the highest photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs), a core/shell structure is usually required. In this arrangement, a second semiconductor is used to encapsulate the nanocrystal (e.g. CdSe/CdS, InP/ZnS). This material passivates surface defects of the emissive core which would otherwise act as non-radiative recombination sites for excitons.

Due to their high PLQY, relative ease of fabrication and wide emission-colour tunability, quantum dots having this type of structure are especially suitable for application in display and imaging technologies - and are already appearing in commercial products such as televisions.

Perovskite Quantum Dot Photoluminescence Spectra
The photoluminescence emission wavelength can be tuned by varying the ratio of halides present within the quantum dot, by careful selection the emission can be varied from 400 nm to 700 nm - measurable with an optical spectrometer (see spectrometer application notes)

A new class of quantum dot is emerging based on perovskites. These have already been shown to have properties rivalling or exceeding those of metal chalcogenide QDs.

Due to their outstanding photovoltaic performance, perovskites are receiving significant attention from the research community. Recently, has been shown that reducing the dimensions of a perovskite crystal down to a few nanometres results in the creation of quantum dots with very high photoluminescence quantum yields and excellent colour purity (i.e. narrow emission linewidths of ~10 nm for blue emitters and 40 nm for red emitters [1]).

These quantum dots are highly tolerant to defects, as they require no passivation of the surface to retain their high PLQY. Although defect and trap sites are present, their energies are positioned outside the bandgap and are either located within the conduction or valence bands [2]. Such perovskite nanocrystals are simple to synthesise in a colloidal suspension and are easily integrated into optoelectronic devices using readily available processing techniques, making them a strong contender for future technologies.

Size, Properties, and Structure

  • 99% purity with Photoluminescence Quantum Yield of 60 – 70%
  • Emission Peak at 515 nm and Emission Linewidth (FWHM) of 21 nm
  • Cubic crystal structure with typical size 4 - 15 nm

For more information, please see the properties tab.

Perovskite Quantum Dot Applications

Perovskite quantum dots are currently less well researched than other types of quantum dot. However, they have shown great  potential for a range of different applications in optoelectronics and nanotechnology. For example,  perovskite quantum dots have been used to create solar cells having power conversion efficiencies that exceed that of comparable devices based on more conventional semiconductor nanocrystal materials.

Potential applications for perovskite quantum dots include:

  • Light Emitting Diodes
  • Solar Cells
  • Single Photon Sources
  • X-Ray Detectors
  • Lasers
  • Photodetectors
  • Quantum Computing
  • Cell imaging
  • Cancer mapping

For more information, please see the applications tab.

Technical Data

CsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots

CAS number 15243-48-8
Chemical formula CsPbBr3
Molecular weight 579.82 g/mol
Full name Caesium lead tribromide quantum dots
Synonyms Caesium lead bromide quantum dots
Classification / Family Perovskite quantum dots, Perovskite nanocrystal solutions, Cadmium-free quantum dots, Quantum dot solutions, Green emitter, Quantum dot LEDs (QDLEDs), Perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs), Perovskite solar cells (PvSCs)
Purity 99%
Appearance Yellow Liquid
Emission Peak 520-530 nm
Emission Linewidth (FWHM) 21 nm
Photoluminescence Quantum Yield ~ 77%

CsPbCl1.5Br1.5 Perovskite Quantum Dots

CAS number Not available
Chemical formula CsPbCl1.5Br1.5
Molecular weight 513.14 g/mol
Full name Caesium lead chloride bromide quantum dots
Synonyms Caesium lead chloride bromide quantum dots
Classification / Family Perovskite quantum dots, Perovskite nanocrystal solutions, Cadmium-free quantum dots, Quantum dot solutions, Green emitter, Quantum dot LEDs (QDLEDs), Perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs), Perovskite solar cells (PvSCs)
Purity 99%
Appearance Clear Liquid
Emission Peak 450 nm
Emission Linewidth (FWHM) 20 nm
Photoluminescence Quantum Yield 30 - 40%

CsPbI3 Perovskite Quantum Dots

CAS number 18041-25-3
Chemical formula CsPbI3
Molecular weight 720.82 g/mol
Full name Caesium lead triiodide quantum dots
Synonyms Caesium lead iodide quantum dots
Classification / Family Perovskite quantum dots, Perovskite nanocrystal solutions, Cadmium-free quantum dots, Quantum dot solutions, Green emitter, Quantum dot LEDs (QDLEDs), Perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs), Perovskite solar cells (PvSCs)
Purity 99%
Appearance Dark Red Liquid
Emission Peak 688 nm
Emission Linewidth (FWHM) 39 nm
Photoluminescence Quantum Yield 60 - 70%

Perovskite Quantum Dot Spectral Data

CsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Absorption SpectraCsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Absorption Spectra

CsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Photoluminescence SpectraCsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Photoluminescence Spectra

CsPbCl1.5Br1.5 Perovskite Quantum Dots Photoluminescence SpectraCsPbCl1.5Br1.5 Perovskite Quantum Dots Photoluminescence Spectra

CsPbI3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Photoluminescence SpectraCsPbI3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Photoluminescence Spectra

MSDS Documents

Toluene Dispersed CsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots MSDSCsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots in Toluene

Octane Dispersed CsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots MSDSCsPbBr3 Perovskite Quantum Dots in Octane

Properties of Perovskite Quantum Dots

Perovskite Quantum Dot Structure

Halide perovskite nanocrystals have a cubic crystal structure with the chemical formula A+Pb2+X-3. They can be classed as an organic-inorganic hybrid, where A is an organic cation such as methylammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA), or fully inorganic (A=Cs), and where X is a halogen (Cl, Br or I). Due to the lack of volatile organics, fully-inorganic nanocrystals tend to have better stability and higher PLQY (>90%) than hybrid organic-inorganic materials [3]. Mixed halide perovskites can also be produced where X is a mixture of Cl/Br or Br/I.

For visible optoelectronic applications, the nanocrystals are generally synthesised to have a size of 4 - 15 nm (dependent on the halogen atom and the required optical properties). The emission wavelength can be tuned through the entire visible spectrum (400 - 700nm [4]) by changing either the nanocrystal size or halide ratio (for mixed halide systems).

Perovskite quantum dot structure
Figure 1: Lead halide perovskite quantum dots have a cubic structure and are often synthesised with organic ligands.

Perovskite Quantum Dot Synthesis

The first hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite quantum dot colloidal synthesis of MAPbBr3 was reported by Schmidt et al. using a hot injection method (similar to that used to synthesise metal chalcogenide QDs [4]). A mixture of methylamine bromide and lead bromide was injected into an octadecene solution containing oleic acid and a long chain alkyl ammonium bromide. The PLQY of the resulting QDs was ~20%, and was stable for several months due to the stabilising and capping effects of the ammonium bromide and oleic acid. By optimisation of the reactant molar ratios, the PLQY was increased to over 80% [5], and later to ~100% by changing the capping ligand [6].



 Perovskite quantum dot ink synthesis
Figure 2: The synthesis of perovskite quantum dots involves injecting Cs-oleate into a lead precursor.


Hot injection was again used for the colloidal synthesis of inorganic metal-halide perovskite quantum dots, first reported by Protesescu et al [1]. That recipe developed was as follows:

  1. The caesium precursor Cs-oleate is first prepared by mixing caesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) and oleic acid (OA) in octadecene (ODE), and heating under nitrogen until the Cs2CO3 has reacted with the OA. This solution must be kept above 100°C to prevent precipitation of the Cs-oleate.
  2. A lead halide precursor is prepared by mixing a lead halide (PbCl2, PbI2, PbBr2 or a mixture of these) in ODE at 120°C under nitrogen, along with OA and oleylamine (OLA) that act as stabilising agents. Once the lead halide has dissolved, the temperature is increased to between 140-200°C (depending on the required nanocrystal size).
  3. The caesium precursor is then injected. After 5 seconds, the mixture is rapidly cooled in an ice bath, with the quantum dots being isolated through centrifuging.

The resulting nanocrystals have surface ligands comprised of OA and OLA [3]. Such nanocrystals were found to have PLQYs up to ~90%, with the smallest crystals (4 nm diameter) having an emission linewidth (full width half maximum) of 12 nm at an emission wavelength of 410 nm, with the largest quantum dots (15 nm diameter) having a linewidth of 42 nm at 700 nm.


Video by Ossila

During the production process the reaction mixture is quenched by cooling in an ice-water bath.

Mixed-halide Perovskite Quantum Dots

An advantage that perovskite quantum dots have over their metal chalcogenide counterparts is the simplicity by which their emission properties can be modified. In addition to tuning the emission wavelength during synthesis through reaction temperature (and ultimately, nanocrystal size), it can also be changed post-synthesis through an anion-exchange reaction [7,8]. By mixing a donor halide source such as octadecylammonium (ODA-Y), chloro-oleyalmine-oleylammonium chloride (OLAM-Y) or tetrabutylammonium (TBA-Y) halide (where Y is Cl, Br or I) with a solution of CsPbX3 nanocrystals, the chemical composition of the nanocrystals can be tuned continuously over the range CsPb(X1-Z:YZ), where 0≤Z≤1.


Anion exchange in perovskite quantum dots
A possible mechanism for anion exchange in perovskite quantum dots.


Anion exchange is followed by lattice reconfiguration, giving a mixed halide structure. This results in a single emission peak at an energy somewhere in between those of the constituent nanocrystals, thereby retaining the narrow linewidth needed for color purity. However it has been found that direct conversion between CsPbI3 and CsPbCl3 is not possible because of the large mismatch in the size of the halide ions.

It has also been demonstrated that this anion exchange process can be easily accomplished by simply mixing different stock solutions of the nanocrystal constituents at different volume ratios (e.g. CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 to obtain CsPb(Br1-Z:IZ)3 [7,9]). Both methods allow the nanocrystal emission to be tuned over the entire visible range while retaining a high PLQY and color purity. The anion exchange process can however be suppressed by adding polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) to the solution. This creates a protective cage around the nanocrystals, and allows mixing of different halide compositions while retaining the photoluminescent properties of the constituent nanocrystals. It also has the added effect of protecting the nanocrystals from water [10].


 Perovskite quantum dot ink
Figure 3: A CsPbBr perovskite quantum dot ink under normal illumination (left) and ultraviolet illumination (right).

Applications of Perovskite Quantum Dots

Perovskite quantum dots have huge potential for a range of applications in electronics, optoelectronics and nanotechnology. Currently, the field is not well researched, but initial results are extremely promising. Details on a selection of the applications that have been investigated are given below.

Currently, reports of perovskite quantum dot solar cells are still limited, especially when compared to bulk and 2-dimensional perovskites. This is likely due to the limited time that such materials have been available. However, recent results  suggest that perovskite quantum dots could play a role future photovoltaic devices.

The first use of perovskite quantum dots in solar cells was in 2011 by Im et al., where MaPbI3 nanocrystals acted as a light-sensitiser in a structure resembling a dye-sensitised solar cell [16], with a power conversion efficiency of 6.5% reported. This result predated the synthesis of colloidal perovskite quantum dots, and the nanocrystals were instead formed through surface interactions when a mixture of methylammonium iodide and lead iodide was spincast onto a TiO2 surface.

At room temperature, bulk CsPbI3 forms an orthorhombic crystal lattice with a large bandgap of ~2.8 eV. The cubic phase is far more suitable for photovoltaic applications as a result of a narrower bandgap (1.73 eV). However, this phase only forms in bulk CsPbI3 at temperatures above 300°C. Due to the elevated temperature and the effect of reduced surface area, all CsPbX3 nanocrystals crystallise into the cubic phase during synthesis. In contrast CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3 quantum dots are phase-stable in the cubic polymorph over long periods, however CsPbI3 will convert back to an orthorhombic configuration over a few days in ambient conditions.

Swarnkar et al. showed that treating spincast CsPbI3 quantum dot films with methyl acetate stabilises the cubic structure [17]. This was achieved by changing the surface energy via the removal of unreacted precursors - without causing the aggregation of the dots. The resulting film was stable for months under ambient conditions, and had excellent optoelectronic properties. Indeed, when fabricated into solar cells, such films achieved a PCE of over 10% and had a large open-circuit voltage of 1.23 V. Furthermore, LEDs incorporating stabilised CsPbI3 nanocrystals as the active layer displayed a low turn-on voltage of < 2 V.

It was later demonstrated that coating the nanocrystals in A+X- (where A is formamidinium, methylammonium or Cs, and X is I or Br) further improves charge-carrier mobility of the nanocrystal films. This allowed solar cells having a PCE of 13.4% to be fabricated – the highest efficiency photovoltaics based on quantum dots of any kind [18]. This result is promising for the development of perovskite tandem solar cells; here a bulk perovskite film performs the role of the low bandgap absorber, with the perovskite quantum dot layer acting as a complementary wide bandgap absorber [19].

Metal chalcogenide quantum dots already play a role in consumer display products - so the increased PLQY, ease of synthesis, excellent colour purity, and wide colour tunability of perovskite quantum dots suggest that they should be well-suited to such applications. However, charge injection and transport in nanocrystal films must be optimised in order to achieve high-efficiency devices.

First devices by Song et al. used an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/CsPbX3/TPBi/LiF/Al structure to demonstrate blue, green, and orange LEDs [11]. While the emission linewidths were narrow, the brightness of the LEDs was modest (<1000 cdm-2), and the external quantum efficiencies (EQE) were limited to ~0.1%.

Li et al. showed the importance of nanocrystal surface chemistry; here the EQE of CsPbBr3 nanocrystal LEDs was increased by 50x (0.12% to 6.27%) through the optimisation of device charge-transport layers and surface ligand density control (achieved through the use of a washing procedure using hexane and ethyl acetate [3]). While ligands are needed to passivate the quantum dot surface and prevent aggregation (leading to high PLQY and greater stability), an excessive density of surface ligands can inhibit electrical injection and transport. By tuning the ligand density, a brightness of >15,000 cdm-2 was obtained that was accompanied by high colour purity (20 nm emission linewidth using ~8 nm nanocrystals).

One proposal that bypasses the electrical properties of nanocrystal films is to use them as down-converters for inorganic blue or UV LEDs. Pathak et al. dissolved hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite quantum dots of various mixed halide compositions (emitting green or red luminescence) into a polystyrene polymer solution which was then spin cast into a thin film [12]. The polystyrene polymer acted as an insulating matrix that prevented anion exchange, thereby preserving the individual emission peaks of the constituent nanocrystals and allowing the generation of white light when illuminated with a commercial blue LED.

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) has been observed in drop cast films of CsPbBr3, and mixed CsPb(Br/I)3 and CsPb(Cl/Br)3 nanocrystals. Pump thresholds can be as low as 5 µJ cm-2 [13]; a value that compares very favourably with other colloidal QD systems (e.g. an order of magnitude lower than spectrally similar CdSe QDs). The ASE emission intensity is extremely stable in air, dropping by only 10% after several hours of irradiation and ~107 shots in ambient conditions. This performance also compares extremely well to chalcogenide QDs [14]. The stimulated emission has been identified as resulting from the recombination of biexcitons (which are more stable at room temperature than excitons), with red-shifted emission leading to reduced self-absorption (and hence low lasing thresholds). The ASE wavelength can also be tuned throughout the entire visible spectrum via mixing the halide composition.

Lasing was observed in a whispering gallery mode configuration. It was later shown that stimulated emission could be observed in CsPbBr3 nanocrystal films following two-photon absorption [15]. Here, it was found that the two-photon absorption cross-section was 2 orders of magnitude larger than that of similar metal chalcogenide quantum dots, leading to a stimulated emission threshold of green-emitting CsPbBr3 nanocrystals of 2.5 mJ cm-2. This is far lower than core-shell metal chalcogenide quantum dots. This non-linear stimulated emission could also be tuned across the visible wavelengths by varying the mixed halide composition. Green stimulated emission from CsPbBr quantum dots (following three-photon absorption) was also observed – a first for any type of quantum dot. For this reason, perovskite quantum dots present an exciting prospect for the development of next-generation lasers.

Single photon sources are required for new light-based quantum information systems. Here, current efforts mainly focus on the use of epitaxially-grown quantum dots, diamond colour centers and colloidal nanocrystals. Of these, colloidal NCs are the most promising for room-temperature visible operation [20].

Dilute CsPbX3 (X=Br, I or Br/I) NC solutions have been spin cast to create spatially-separated individual QDs [20,21]. Imaging the photoluminescence from individual NCs showed the blinking behaviour that is characteristic of single emitters. Photon coincidence counting revealed low g(2) values of ~6%, demonstrating the realisation of an efficient, anti-bunched single photon source at room temperature – all of which are desirable characteristics for emergent quantum technologies.

In comparison with metal chalcogenide QDs, metal halide perovskite QDs display shorter fluorescence lifetimes and higher absorption coefficients and are therefore faster and more efficient sources of single photons.

The high absorption coefficient of perovskite QDs over a wide spectral range may make them suitable candidates for use in light-detection devices. Pan et al. have reported the fabrication of a phototransistor based on FAPbBr3 quantum dots and graphene [22]. The QDs which act as the light absorber, are deposited onto a monolayer of graphene that transports photoexcited charges to the source/drain. Such phototransistors have a broad response spanning the visible spectrum, although they have reduced response to photons having energies below the semiconductor bandgap (540 nm). Here, a photoresponsivity of 1.15×105 AW-1 was observed at 520 nm; a value that is amongst the highest of any graphene-based photodetectors.

Pricing Table

Perovskite Solvent Concentration Volume Product Code Price
CsPbX3 Toluene 10 1 ml M2124 £45.00
CsPbX3 Toluene 10 5 ml M2124 £200.00
CsPbX3 Toluene 10 10 ml M2124 £350.00
CsPbX3 Toluene 10 25 ml M2124 £700.00
CsPbX3 Octane 10 1 ml M2124 £45.00
CsPbX3 Octane 10 5 ml M2124 £200.00
CsPbBr3 Octane 10 10 ml M2124 £350.00
CsPbX3 Octane 10 25 ml M2124 £700.00

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  1. Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut, L. Protesescu et al., Nano Lett., 15 (6), 3692–3696 (2015)
  2. Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals in the Research Spotlight: Stability and Defect Tolerance, Huang et al., ACS Energy Lett., 2 (9), 2071–2083 (2017)
  3. 50‐Fold EQE Improvement up to 6.27% of Solution‐Processed All‐Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 QLEDs via Surface Ligand Density Control, Li et al., Adv. Mater., 29 (5), 1603885 (2017)
  4. Nontemplate Synthesis of CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Nanoparticles, L. Schmidt et al., Am. Chem. Soc., 136 (3), 850–853 (2014)
  5. Maximizing the emissive properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite nanoparticles, S. Gonzalex-Carrero et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 3, 9187-9193 (2015)
  6. The Luminescence of CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Nanoparticles Crests the Summit and Their Photostability under Wet Conditions is Enhanced, Gonzalex-Carrero et al., Small, 12 (38), 5245-5250 (2016)
  7. Fast Anion-Exchange in Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I), N. Nedelcu et al., Nano Lett., 15 (8), 5635–5640 (2015)
  8. Tuning the Optical Properties of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals by Anion Exchange Reactions, Akkerman et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 137 (32), 10276–10281 (2015)
  9. Room-Temperature Construction of Mixed-Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots with High Photoluminescence Quantum Yield, C. Bi et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 122 (9), 5151–5160 (2018)
  10. Water resistant CsPbX3 nanocrystals coated with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane and their use as solid state luminophores in all-perovskite white light-emitting devices, H. Huang et al., Chem Sci., 7 (9), 5699–5703 (2016)
  11. Quantum dot light-emitting diodes based on inorganic perovskite cesium lead halides (CsPbX3), J. Song et al., Adv. Mater., 27, 7162-7167 (2015)
  12. Perovskite Crystals for Tunable White Light Emission, S. Pathak et al., Chem. Mater., 27 (23), 8066–8075 (2015)
  13. Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites, S. Yakunin et al., Nat. Comm., 6, 8056 (2015)
  14. All‐Inorganic Colloidal Perovskite Quantum Dots: A New Class of Lasing Materials with Favorable Characteristics, Y. Wang et al., Adv. Mater., 27 (44), 7101-7108 (2015)
  15. Nonlinear Absorption and Low-Threshold Multiphoton Pumped Stimulated Emission from All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals, Wang et al., Nano Lett., 16 (1), 448–453 (2016)
  16. 6.5% efficient perovskite quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell, JH. Im et al., Nanoscale, 3, 4088-4093 (2011)
  17. Quantum dot–induced phase stabilization of α-CsPbI3 perovskite for high-efficiency photovoltaics, A. Swarnkar et al., Science, 354 (6308), 92-95 (2016)
  18. Enhanced mobility CsPbI3 quantum dot arrays for record-efficiency, high-voltage photovoltaic cells, E. Sanehira et al., Science Advances 27 Oct 2017: Vol. 3, no. 10, eaao4204
  19. Perovskite Quantum Dots: A New Absorber for Perovskite-Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells: Preprint, J. Christians et al., National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/CP-5900-71593 (2018)
  20. Superior Optical Properties of Perovskite Nanocrystals as Single Photon Emitters, F. Hu et al., ACS Nano, 9 (12), 12410–12416 (2015)
  21. Room Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Individual Perovskite Quantum Dots, YS. Park et al., ACS Nano, 9(10), 10386–10393 (2015)
  22. Photodetectors: High‐Responsivity Photodetectors Based on Formamidinium Lead Halide Perovskite Quantum Dot–Graphene Hybrid, R. Pan et al., Particle, 35 (4), 1700304 (2018)

To the best of our knowledge the information provided here is accurate. However, Ossila assume no liability for the accuracy of this page. The values provided are typical at the time of manufacture and may vary over time and from batch to batch. All products are for laboratory and research and development use only, and may not be used for any other purpose including health care, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food or commercial applications.

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