*typical representative size, areas/dimensions may vary
||0.91 -1.79 eV 
||Stannous selenide, Tin selenide
|Classification / Family
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), 2D semiconductor materials, Nano-electronics, Nano-photonics, Materials science
||Synthetic - chemical vapour transport (CVT)
||861 °C (lit.)
Tin selenide (SnSe) is a narrow band gap semiconductor comprised of environmentally friendly and earth abundant elements.
SnSe has recently proven to be an extraordinarily promising thermoelectric material with intrinsically ultra-low lattice thermal conductivity and a record figure of merit up to 2.6 at a higher temperature (813K). This enables direct and reversible conversion between thermal and electrical energy, and provides a viable route for power generation from waste heat.
With an indirect bandgap of 1.30 eV and direct bandgap of 1.21 eV, SnSe has great potential to be utilised as an efficient material for solar energy conversion.
SnSe belongs to the class of layered semiconductors. It is made up of tightly bound layers formed by double planes each of which consists of zigzag
chains of tin and selenium atoms. At room temperature, SnSe adopts orthorhombic crystal structure which can be compared to that of black phosphorus.
Exfoliated few-layer tin selenide (SnSe) has been used in the field of photovoltaics and infrared optoelectronic devices, radiation detectors, holographic recording systems, electrical switching, and polarity-dependent memory switching devices. SnSe also has great potential for use in memory switching devices, efficient solar materials, and holographic recording systems.
Tin selenide (SnS) is manufactured using chemical vapour transport (CVT) crystallisation, with crystals having a high purity (in excess of 99.999%).
Tin selenide single crystals can be used to prepare monolayer and few-layer Sn, via mechanical or liquid exfoliation.
Literature and Reviews
- Liquid Exfoliation Few-Layer SnSe Nanosheets with Tunable Band Gap, Y. Huang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 121 (32), 17530–17537 (2017); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b06096.
- Ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit in SnSe crystals, L. Zhao et al., Nature, 508, 373-377 (2014); doi: 10.1038/nature13184.
- Quasiparticle band structures and thermoelectric transport properties of p-type SnSe, G. Shi et al., J. Appl. Phys., 117, 065103 (2015); doi: 10.1063/1.4907805.
- Anisotropic Spin Transport and Strong Visible-Light Absorbance in Few- Layer SnSe and GeSe, G. Shi et al., Nano Lett., 15, 6926−6931 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02861.
- Nanostructured SnSe: Synthesis, doping, and thermoelectric properties, S. Liu et al., J. Appl. Phys., 123, 115109 (2018); doi: 10.1063/1.5018860.