NDI-N, namely (N,N-dimethylamino)propyl naphthalene diimide is a cathode interlayer material with a naphthalene diimide (NDI) and two dimethylpropylamine side chains.
Naphthalene diimides, a class of excellent n‐type semiconductor materials with high electron affinities owing to their self‐organization manifested by the π–π stacking, are widely used as building blocks for n-type semiconducting polymers, i.e. PNDI(2OD)2T, aslo known as N2200. NDI-based polymers exhibited an excellent thickness in sensitivity in organic solar cell devices (OSCs), and NDI-N was first of its kind developed for printable CIL for OSCs . NDI-N can passivate defects or pinholes in the active layer, making large-area device with high efficiency possible.
Compared with perylene diimides (PDIs), NDI-based materials give higher optical transparency, making them ideal candidates in serving as charge-transport layer in organic solar cells.
NDI derivatives also show strong absorption in the UV region and a good UV resistance. For this reason, NDI-based cathode interlayer materials can effectively reduce the damage to the active layer materials caused by the UV irradiation while for the most of the time the solar panels works under direct sunlight.
Device structure: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PBDB-T-2F (PM6):IT-4F/NDI-N (10 nm)/Al 
|Thickness (nm)||VOC (V)||JSC (mA cm-2)||FF (%)||PCE max (%)|
|110 ± 20 nm||0.86||21.3||76||13.9|
|Full name||(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl naphthalene diimide|
|Purity||98% (1H NMR)|
|Molecular weight||436.5 g/mol|
|HOMO / LUMO||HOMO = 6.93 eV, LUMO = -3.98 eV |
|Melting point (DSC)||n.a.|
|Form||Bright yellow powder/crystals|
|Absorption||λmax 368 nm (film)|
|Solubility/processing solvents||Methanol, ethanol, trifluoroethanol|
|Classification / Family||Naphthalene diimide (NDI), Cathode interlay materials (CILs), Organic semiconducting materials, Organic Photovoltaics, OLED.|
Literature and Reviews
- Highly Stable Organic Solar Cells Based on an Ultraviolet-Resistant Cathode Interfacial Layer, Q. Liao et al., CCS Chem., 3, 1059–1069 (2021); DOI: 10.31635/ccschem.021.202100852.
- A Printable Organic Cathode Interlayer Enables over 13% Efficiency for 1-cm2 Organic Solar Cells, Q. Kang et al., Joule 3, 227–239 (2019); doi: 10.1016/j.joule.2018.10.024.
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