λmax 292, 366, 408 nm in THF
||λem 596, 645 nm in THF
||HOMO 5.08 eV; LUMO 2.67 eV 
|Classification / Family
||Organometallic complex, phosphorescent red emitter, phosphorescence dopant OLEDs, polymer solar cells, sublimed materials
||> 300 °C
*Sublimation is a technique used to obtain ultra pure-grade chemicals. For more details about sublimation, please refer to the Sublimed Materials for OLED devices page.
Tris(2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridineiridium, known as Ir(btpy)3, is an efficient red phosphorescent emitter (PHOLED). It is commonly used in organic light-emitting diodes and polymer solar cells as a dopant, and in barometric pressure probes due to its sensitivity to oxygen .
Wang et al. demonstrated that a higher Ir(btpy)3 doping concentration is beneficial to photon harvesting in the active layer, but the interpenetrating network of P3HT:PCBM can be damaged through high-temperature annealing treatment .
Literature and Reviews
The Red Electroluminescence of Iridium Complex at Different Concentrations and Host Materials, W. Zhang et al., Appl. Mechanics and Mater., Ch. 2, 94-97 (2014); DIO: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.633-634.94.
- Structure–Property Relationship of Red- and Green-Emitting Iridium(III) Complexes with Respect to Their Temperature and Oxygen Sensitivity, N. Tian et al., Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2010, 4875–4885, DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201000610.
- Effect of Doping Phosphorescent Material and Annealing Treatment on the Performance of Polymer Solar Cells, Z. Wang et al., Inter. J. Photoenergy, 273586 (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/273586.
Red-green-blue polymer light-emitting diode pixels printed by optimized laser-induced forward transfer, J. Stewart et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 203303 (2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4717463.
Homoleptic Cyclometalated Iridium Complexes with Highly Efficient Red Phosphorescence and Application to Organic Light-Emitting Diode, A. Tsuboyama et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 12971-12979 (2003), DOI: 10.1021/ja034732d.
Photopolymerization of N-Vinylcarbazole Using Visible-Light Harvesting Iridium Complexes as Photoinitiators, J. Lalevee et al., Macromolecules 45, 4134−4141 (2012), dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma3005229.