||N3 Foundation Dye
|HOMO / LUMO
||HOMO = -5.39 eV, LUMO = -2.79 eV
|Classification / Family
||Transition metal complex, Ruthenium complex, Bipyridyl ligands, Energy materials, Dye-sensitized solar cells DSSC) materials, Donor materials, OPV materials.
||Dark purple powder
Cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II), also known as N3 Dye, is one of the earliest benchmarked ruthenium complex dyes developed for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Since its discovery, it has become the paradigm of heterogeneous charge-transfer sensitizer for mesoporous solar cells.
Fully-protonated N3 dye has absorption maxima at 518 nm and 380 nm, with extinction coefficients of 13 K and 13.3 K M−1 cm−1 respectively. Adsorbed onto nanocrystalline TiO2 film, total energy conversion efficiency from light to electricity η of the cell was 10% under AM 1.5 irradiation 
Literature and Reviews
Conversion of light to electricity by cis-X2bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II) charge-transfer sensitizers (X = Cl-, Br-, I-, CN-, and SCN-) on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide electrodes, M. K. Nazeeruddin et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115 (14), 6382–6390 (1993); DOI: 10.1021/ja00067a063.
Monitoring N3 Dye Adsorption and Desorption on TiO2 Surfaces: A Combined QCM-D and XPS Study, H. K. Wayment-Steele et al., CS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6 (12), 9093–9099 (2014); DOI: 10.1021/am500920w.
Aggregation of ZnO Nanocrystallites for High Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Q. Zhang et al., Angew. Chem., 120, 2436 –2440 (2008); DOI: 10.1002/ange.200704919.
Phonon mode of TiO2 coupled with the electron transfer from N3 dye, T. Nomoto et al., J. Chem. Phys., 138, 224704 (2013); doi: 10.1063/1.4807850.
Visible light guided manipulation of liquid wettability on photoresponsive surfaces, Kwon, G. et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 14968 (2017); doi: 10.1038/ncomms14968.