|Synonyms||N3 Foundation Dye|
|HOMO / LUMO||HOMO = -5.39 eV, LUMO = -2.79 eV|
|Classification / Family||Transition metal complex, Ruthenium complex, Bipyridyl ligands, Energy materials, Dye-sensitized solar cells DSSC) materials, Donor materials, OPV materials.|
|Melting point||>300 °C|
|Appearance||Dark purple powder|
Cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II), also known as N3 Dye, is one of the earliest benchmarked ruthenium complex dyes developed for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Since its discovery, it has become the paradigm of heterogeneous charge-transfer sensitizer for mesoporous solar cells.
Fully-protonated N3 dye has absorption maxima at 518 nm and 380 nm, with extinction coefficients of 13 K and 13.3 K M−1 cm−1 respectively. Adsorbed onto nanocrystalline TiO2 film, total energy conversion efficiency from light to electricity η of the cell was 10% under AM 1.5 irradiation 
Literature and Reviews
- Conversion of light to electricity by cis-X2bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II) charge-transfer sensitizers (X = Cl-, Br-, I-, CN-, and SCN-) on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide electrodes, M. K. Nazeeruddin et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115 (14), 6382–6390 (1993); DOI: 10.1021/ja00067a063.
- Monitoring N3 Dye Adsorption and Desorption on TiO2 Surfaces: A Combined QCM-D and XPS Study, H. K. Wayment-Steele et al., CS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6 (12), 9093–9099 (2014); DOI: 10.1021/am500920w.
- Aggregation of ZnO Nanocrystallites for High Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Q. Zhang et al., Angew. Chem., 120, 2436 –2440 (2008); DOI: 10.1002/ange.200704919.
- Phonon mode of TiO2 coupled with the electron transfer from N3 dye, T. Nomoto et al., J. Chem. Phys., 138, 224704 (2013); doi: 10.1063/1.4807850.
- Visible light guided manipulation of liquid wettability on photoresponsive surfaces, Kwon, G. et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 14968 (2017); doi: 10.1038/ncomms14968.
To the best of our knowledge the technical information provided here is accurate. However, Ossila assume no liability for the accuracy of this information. The values provided here are typical at the time of manufacture and may vary over time and from batch to batch.