||≥ 10 mm2
||≥ 25 mm2
*typical representative size, areas/dimensions may vary
||~ 0.3 eV - 2.0 eV
||Phosphorus, Black Phosphorus Crystal
|Classification / Family
||Phosphorene, Layered structure, Elemental 2D semiconductor, Nano-electronics, Nano-photonics
||Synthetic - Chemical Vapour Transport (CVT) crystallisation
||416 °C (lit.)
Black phosphorus (BP), like graphene and other transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs), is semiconducting in nature and has a two-dimensional layered structure. As a result of its in-plane structure and electronic band-gap, BP bridges the properties of graphene-like materials and TMDCs.
Black phosphorus single crystals are widely processed using mechanical exfoliation. This creates single-layer or thin-layer black phosphorus films (phosphorene). Exfoliation is normally achieved by using scotch tape to peel off relatively thin flakes from a larger block of black phosphorus.
In order to increase the yield of few-layer black phosphorus flakes and reduce contamination, a viscoelastic material (such as poly-dimethilsiloxane (PDMS)) is often used as the substrate for exfoliation.
Mechanically-exfoliated monolayer and few-layer phosphorene has great potential for applications in electronics and optoelectronics including FETs, LEDs, photodetectors, supercapacitors, super-conductors, memory devices, batteries, and thermoelectrics.
Black phosphorus (BP) single crystals are manufactured using chemical-vapour transport (CVT) crystallisation. So far, purities in excess of 99.999% have been achieved.
Black phosphorus (BP) bulk single crystals are used to produce single or few-layer phosphorene sheets via mechanical or liquid exfoliation. Using a range of microscopy techniques (including AFM and TEM), single crystals can be explored.
More information on the properties, applications, processing and range of products available for black phosphorus (phosphorene) is described here.
Literature and Reviews
- The renaissance of black phosphorus, X. Ling et al., PANS, 112 (15), 4523-4530 (2015); DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1416581112.
Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus, A. Castellanos-Gomez et al., 2D Mater. 1(2) 025001 (2014); doi:10.1088/2053-1583/1/2/025001.
High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus, J. Qiao et al., Nat. Commun., 5:4475 (2014); DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5475.
Black Phosphorus: Narrow Gap, Wide Applications, A. Castellanos-Gomez, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 6, 4280−4291 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01686.
Strain Engineering for Phosphorene: The Potential Application as a Photocatalyst, B.Sa et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 118 (46), 26560–26568 (2014); DOI: 10.1021/jp508618t.
Phosphorene: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications, L. Kou etal., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2015, 6 (14), 2794–2805 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01094