Black Phosphorus Crystal

Order Code: M2106A10
MSDS sheet


(excluding Taxes)



Size Product code Size description* Quantity (EA) Price
Small M2106A10 ≥ 10 mm2 1 £396
Medium M2106A25 ≥ 25 mm2 1 £538.6

*typical representative size, areas/dimensions may vary


General Information

CAS number 7723-14-0
Chemical formula P
Molecular weight 30.97 g/mol
Bandgap ~ 0.3 eV - 2.0 eV
Synonyms Phosphorus, Black Phosphorus Crystal
Classification / Family Phosphorene, Layered structure, Elemental 2D semiconductor, Nano-electronics, Nano-photonics 

Product Details

Form Single crystal
Preparation Synthetic - Chemical Vapour Transport (CVT) crystallisation
Purity ≥ 99.999%
Structure Orthorhombic C
Electronic properties 2D semiconductor
Melting point 416 °C (lit.)
Colour Black


General description 

Black phosphorus (BP), like graphene and other transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs), is semiconducting in nature and has a two-dimensional layered structure. As a result of its in-plane structure and electronic band-gap, BP bridges the properties of graphene-like materials and TMDCs.

Black phosphorus single crystals are widely processed using mechanical exfoliation. This creates single-layer or thin-layer black phosphorus films (phosphorene). Exfoliation is normally achieved by using scotch tape to peel off relatively thin flakes from a larger block of black phosphorus. 

In order to increase the yield of few-layer black phosphorus flakes and reduce contamination, a viscoelastic material (such as poly-dimethilsiloxane (PDMS)) is often used as the substrate for exfoliation.

black phosphorus phosphorene structure, product image  
The puckered orthorhombic structure of black phosphorus.



Mechanically-exfoliated monolayer and few-layer phosphorene has great potential for applications in electronics and optoelectronics including FETs, LEDs, photodetectors, supercapacitors, super-conductors, memory devices, batteries, and thermoelectrics.


Black phosphorus (BP) single crystals are manufactured using chemical-vapour transport (CVT) crystallisation. So far, purities in excess of 99.999% have been achieved.


Black phosphorus (BP) bulk single crystals are used to produce single or few-layer phosphorene sheets via mechanical or liquid exfoliation. Using a range of microscopy techniques (including AFM and TEM), single crystals can be explored.


Literature and Reviews

  1. The renaissance of black phosphorus, X. Ling et al., PANS, 112 (15), 4523-4530 (2015); DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1416581112.
  2. Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus, A. Castellanos-Gomez et al., 2D Mater. 1(2) 025001 (2014); doi:10.1088/2053-1583/1/2/025001.
  3. High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus, J. Qiao et al., Nat. Commun., 5:4475 (2014); DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5475.
  4. Black Phosphorus: Narrow Gap, Wide Applications, A. Castellanos-Gomez, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 6, 4280−4291 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01686.
  5. Strain Engineering for Phosphorene: The Potential Application as a Photocatalyst, B.Sa et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 118 (46), 26560–26568 (2014); DOI: 10.1021/jp508618t.
  6. Phosphorene: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications, L. Kou etal., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2015, 6 (14), 2794–2805 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01094

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