Black Phosphorus Powder and Crystals

Order Code: M2106C1
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Low price, high purity black phosphorus
For the development of next-generation electronics, optoelectronics, and nanotechnology

Black phosphorus is an allotrope of phosphorus consisting of multiple two-dimensional layers, weakly bonded to one another by van der Waals forces. When separated, the resulting monolayer (or few-layer) material is known as phosphorene. Due to its unique characteristics and significant potential in electronics and optoelectronics, this material is currently of great interest to the scientific community.

We supply low price black phosphorus in several different forms for a range of applications.

Black phosphorus powder Small crystals by weight Individual crystals by size
Can be used for preparation of black phosphorus quantum dots, nano-platelets and atomically thin films Can be used to produce few-layer phosphorene via mechanical or liquid exfoliation Can be used to produce single or few-layer phosphorene sheets via mechanical or liquid exfoliation, or studied using AFM or TEM
Available in quantities of 250mg, 500mg, or 1g Available in quantities of 250mg, 500mg, or 1g Small (≥10mm2) or medium (≥25mm2) crystals available*
From £219.00 From £369.00 From £396.00
Data | About | Pricing Data | About | Pricing Data | About | Pricing

*Typical representative size, areas/dimensions may vary

Bulk single crystals are most commonly used as sources from which single or few-layer phosphorene sheets can be obtained via either mechanical or liquid exfoliation. In addition, the properties of single crystals can be explored using a range of microscopy techniques including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Black phosphorus powder is generally used to prepare black phosphorus quantum-dots (BPQDs) and nano-platelets by liquid-exfoliation (assisted by sonication). As a result of its high purity, the powdered form can also be used in chemical vapour deposition to create high-quality, atomically thin films.

About Black Phosphorus

Following the discovery of graphene, interest in 2D semiconducting materials has increased substantially. Monolayer (or few-layer) black phosphorus, or phosphorene, is of particular interest due to its unique in-plane layered structure and thickness-dependent electronic band-gap. Black phosphorus bridges the properties of graphene-like materials and transition metal dichalcogenides.

Like graphene and other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), black phosphorus is semiconducting in nature and has a two-dimensional layered structure. Unlike graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), however, phosphorene is an intrinsic p-type semiconductor that possesses a finite and direct band gap.

Substantial anisotropy in transport behaviour in few-layer phosphorene has been observed along different directions of the 2D crystal lattice. Such anisotropic behaviour can be tuned by applying strain across the lattice.

Technical Data

Form Powder Small Crystals Individual Crystals
MSDS Download Download Download
CAS number 7723-14-0
Chemical formula P
Molecular weight 30.97 g/mol
Bandgap 0.3 eV ~ 1.5 eV
Classification / Family Phosphorus, phosphorene, elemental 2D semiconductor, BPQDs, thermoelectric-device, energy storage, nano-electronics, nano-photonics Phosphorus, phosphorene, layered structure, elemental 2D semiconductor, nano-electronics, nano-photonics
Preparation Synthetic, by chemical vapour transport (CVT)
Purity ≥ 99.995% ≥ 99.999%
Structure Orthorhombic C
Electronic properties 2D semiconductor
Melting point 416 °C
Colour Black

Black Phosphorus Crystals

Black phosphorus crystals are widely processed using mechanical exfoliation. This creates single-layer or thin-layer black phosphorus films (phosphorene). Exfoliation is normally achieved by using scotch tape to peel off relatively thin flakes from a larger block of black phosphorus. 

In order to increase the yield of few-layer black phosphorus flakes and reduce contamination, a viscoelastic material such as poly-dimethilsiloxane (PDMS) is often used as the substrate for exfoliation.

black phosphorus product image and structure   
The puckered orthorhombic structure of black phosphorus.


Due to its unique properties, mechanically-exfoliated monolayer and few-layer black phosphorus has great potential for a wide range of applications in electronics and optoelectronics. These include:

  • Electronic devices and sensors: phosphorene can be used in FETs as it has high charge-carrier mobility, high conductivity, and high on/off ratio.
  • Photovoltaics: phosphorene can be used in solar cells. Energy conversion efficiencies as high as 20% have been predicted.
  • Thermoelectric applications: phosphorene combines low thermal and high electrical conductivity.
  • Energy storage: phosphorene combines significant, reversible charge-storage capacity with small volume change and good electrical conductivity.

Other applications of black phosphorus include in LEDs, photodetectors, supercapacitors, super-conductors and memory devices. Individually, the physical properties of black phosphorus crystals can be examined using AFM or TEM.


Black phosphorus crystals are synthesised via chemical vapour transport (CVT). This method has been shown to produce crystals with a purity in excess of 99.999%.

Black Phosphorus Powder and Quantum Dots

Black phosphorus nano-sheets have shown great potential for applications in opto-electronics. In its powder form, it can be combined with liquid-phase exfoliation or further chemical modification to control the physical and electronic properties of the resultant semiconductor material.

Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots

Black phosphorus powder is often used in the preparation of black phosphorus quantum dots, normally via liquid-phase exfoliation. Black phosphorus quantum dots have an average size of 4.9 nm and thickness of 1.9 nm. Such quantum dots are relevant for use as the active layer in flexible memory devices, and have exhibited a non-volatile, re-writable memory effect with high on/off current ratios (more than 6.0 × 104).

These properties make black phosphorus quantum dots well suited for the development of thermoelectric devices, sensors, LEDs, OPVs, and energy storage systems.


Like individual and small crystals, black phosphorus powder is synthesised by chemical vapour transport (CVT). In powdered form, the resulting purity is in excess of 99.995%.

Pricing Table (All)

Form Size/Weight Product Code Price
Powder 250 mg M2106C1 £219.00
Powder 500 mg M2106C1 £360.00
Powder 1 g M2106C1 £611.00
Small crystals 250 mg M2106B1 £369.00
Small crystals 500 mg M2106B1 £639.00
Small crystals 1 g M2106B1 £1020.00
Crystal Small (≥ 10 mm2) M2106A10 £396.00 ea.
Crystal Medium (≥ 25 mm2) M2106A25 £539.00 ea.

Literature and Reviews

Black phosphorus quantum dots

  1. Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots with Tunable Memory Properties and Multilevel Resistive Switching Characteristics, S. Han et al., Adv. Sci., 4, 1600435 (2017); DOI: 10.1002/advs.201600435.
  2. Quantum dots derived from two-dimensional materials and their applications for catalysis and energy, X, Wang et al., Chem. Soc. Rev., 45, 2239 (2016); DOI: 10.1039/c5cs00811e.
  3. Electronic properties of bilayer phosphorene quantum dots in the presence of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields, L. Li et al., Phys. Rev. B 96, 155425 (2017); DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.155425.
  4. Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots, X. Zhang et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 54, 3653 –3657 (2015); DOI: 10.1002/anie.201409400.
  5. Ultrasmall Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Use as Photothermal Agents, Z. Sun et al., Angew.Chem., 127,11688 –11692 (2015); DOI:10.1002/ange.201506154.

Single and bulk crystals

  1. The renaissance of black phosphorus, X. Ling et al., PANS, 112 (15), 4523-4530 (2015); DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1416581112.
  2. Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus, A. Castellanos-Gomez et al., 2D Mater. 1(2) 025001 (2014); doi:10.1088/2053-1583/1/2/025001.
  3. High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus, J. Qiao et al., Nat. Commun., 5:4475 (2014); DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5475.
  4. Black Phosphorus: Narrow Gap, Wide Applications, A. Castellanos-Gomez, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 6, 4280−4291 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01686.
  5. Strain Engineering for Phosphorene: The Potential Application as a Photocatalyst, B.Sa et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 118 (46), 26560–26568 (2014); DOI: 10.1021/jp508618t.
  6. Phosphorene: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications, L. Kou etal., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2015, 6 (14), 2794–2805 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01094
  7. Strain-Engineering the Anisotropic Electrical Conductance of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus, R. Fei et al., Nano Lett., 14 (5), 2884–2889 (2014); DOI: 10.1021/nl500935z.
  8. Layer-dependent Band Alignment and Work Function of Few-Layer Phosphorene, Y. Cai et al., Sci. Rep., 4 : 6677 (2014); DOI: 10.1038/srep06677.
  9. Visualizing Optical Phase Anisotropy in Black Phosphorus, S. Lan et al., ACS Photonics, 3 (7), 1176–1181 (2016); DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00320.
  10. Recent advances in synthesis, properties, and applications of phosphorene, M. Akhtar et al., NPJ 2D Mater. Appl., 1, 5 (2017).