N-butylammonium iodide (BAI), is commonly added to 3D-perovskite precursor solutions to hinder the growth of 3D-perovskite grains, dramatically decreasing the roughness of films .
Compared with methylammonium iodide (MAI), it is believed that ammonium ions with longer chains will not be able to fit at the corner of PbX4's (X = I, Br, Cl) octahedral layers - resulting in the formation of layered perovskite (a.k.a. Ruddlesden–Popper) structures. BAX-incorporated layers demonstrated great improvement on lifetime and operational stability for LED devices.
|Molecular weight||201.05 g/mol|
|Synonyms||BAI, Butylamine Hydroiodide|
|Classification / Family||Perovskite precursor materials, Perovskite solar cells, Perovskite LEDs|
|Melting point||173 °C (exp.)|
Literature and reviews
- Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites, Z. Xiao et al., Nat. Photonics, 11, 108–115 (2017); doi:10.1038/nphoton.2016.269.
- Efficient ambient-air-stable solar cells with 2D–3D heterostructured butylammonium-caesium-formamidinium lead halide perovskites, Z. Wang et al., Nat. Energy, 6 17135 (2017); doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.135.
- Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites, J.-C. Blancon et al., Science, 10.1126/science.aal4211 (2017); DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4211.
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