Graphene oxide is one of the most popular 2D materials available. This is due to the wide range of fields that it can be applied to. It has a distinct advantage over other 2d materials (such as graphene), as it is easily dispersed within solution; allowing for processing at high concentrations. This has opened it up for use in applications such as optical coatings, transparent conductors, thin-film batteries, chemical resistant coatings, water purification, and many more.
Ossila have two types of graphene oxide powders available, with flake sizes between 1-5um and 1-50um. In addition, we also offer pre-dispersed graphene oxide solutions for simple instant use.
Graphene Oxide Powders
|Flake Size||100 - 200nm||1-5 μm||1-50 μm|
|Flake Thickness||0.8 - 1.2 nm||0.8-1.2 nm||0.8-1.2 nm|
|Single layer ratio||>99%||>99%||>99%|
|Amount||100mg, 500mg||500mg, 1g||500mg, 1g|
|Packaging Information||Light resistant bottle||Light resistant bottle||Light resistant bottle|
Graphene Oxide Solutions
|Concentration||5 mg.ml-1||0.5 mg.ml-1||5 mg.ml-1||0.5 mg.ml-1|
|Flake Sizes||1-5 μm||1-5 μm||1-50 μm||1-50 μm|
||4 x 25 ml bottles||4 x 25 ml bottles||4 x 25 ml bottles||4 x 25 ml bottles|
Graphene oxide (GO), also referred to as graphite/graphitic oxide, is obtained by treating graphite with oxidisers, and results in a compound of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in variable ratios.
The structure and properties of GO are much dependent on the particular synthesis method and degree of oxidation. With buckled layers and an interlayer spacing almost two times larger (~0.7 nm) than that of graphite, it typically still preserves the layer structure of the parent graphite.
GO absorbs moisture proportionally to humidity and swells in liquid water. GO membranes are vacuum-tight and impermeable to nitrogen and oxygen, but permeable to water vapours. The ability to absorb water by GO depends on the particular synthesis method and also shows a strong temperature dependence.
GO is considered as an electrical insulator for the disruption of its sp2 bonding networks. However, by manipulating the content of oxygen-containing groups through either chemical or physical reduction methods, the electrical and optical properties of GO can be dynamically tuned. To increase the conductivity, oxygen groups are removed by reduction reactions to reinstall the delocalised hexagonal lattice structure. One of the advantages GO has over graphene is that it can be easily dispersed in water and other polar organic solvents. In this way, GO can be dispersed in a solvent and reduced in situ, resulting in potentially monodispersed graphene particles.
Due to its unique structure, GO can be functionalised in many ways for desired applications, such as optoelectronics, drug delivery, chemical sensors, membrane filtration, flexible electronics, solar cells and more.
GO was first synthesised by Brodie (1859), followed by Hummers' Method (1957), and later on by Staudenmaier and Hofmann methods. Graphite (graphene) oxide has also been prepared by using a "bottom-up" synthesis method (Tang-Lau method) where glucose is the sole starting material. The Tang-Lau method is considered to be easier, cheaper, safer and more environmentally-friendly. The thickness, ranging from monolayer to multilayers, can by adjusted using the Tang-Lau process. The effectiveness of an oxidation process is often evaluated by the carbon/oxygen ratios of the GO.
Due to the presence of oxygen and hydroxide groups, the dispersibility of this material is significantly better than other 2d materials (such as graphene). High concentrations of GO can be dispersed in polar solvents, such as water. At Ossila, we have found that the most stable solutions can be produced using the following recipe:
- Weigh out desired amount of material, this can go up to at least 5 mg.ml-1.
- Add 1:1 ratio of deionized water to isopropyl alcohol.
- Shake vigorously to break up material.
- A short treatment in an ultrasonic bath will rapidly disperse the material.
- For larger flakes, use a mechanical agitator instead (as sonication may damage the flakes).
|CAS number||7782-42-5 (graphite)|
|Recommended Solvents||H2O, DMF, IPA|
|Classification / Family||2D semiconducting materials, Carbon nanomaterials, Graphene, Organic electronics|
- An improved Hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide, J. Chen et al., Carbon 64, 225-229 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.07.055.
- Synthesis of few-layered, high-purity graphene oxide sheets from different graphite sources for biology, D. A. Jasim et al., 2D Mater. 3, 014006 (2016); doi:10.1088/2053-1583/3/1/014006.
- Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide, J. Song et al., J. Nanomater., 276143 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/276143.
- The chemistry of graphene oxide, D. R. Dreyer et al., Chem. Soc. Rev., 39, 228–240 (2010); DOI: 10.1039/b917103g.
- Preparation of small-sized graphene oxide sheets and their biological applications, M. Zhang et al., J. Mater. Chem. B, 4, 121 (2016); DOI: 10.1039/c5tb01800e.
- Graphene Oxide: Preparation, Functionalization, and Electrochemical Applications, D. Chen et al., Chem. Rev., 112, 6027−6053 (2012); dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr300115g.
- Preparation of Graphitic Oxide, W. Hummer et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 80 (6), 1339–1339 (1958); DOI: 10.1021/ja01539a017.
- Improved Synthesis of Graphene Oxide, D. C. Marcano et al., ACS Nano, 4 (8), 4806–4814 (2010); DOI: 10.1021/nn1006368.
- Fast and fully-scalable synthesis of reduced graphene oxide, S. Abdolhosseinzadeh et al., Sci. Rep., 5:10160 (2015); DOI: 10.1038/srep10160.
Graphene and 2D Related Products
To the best of our knowledge, the technical information provided here is accurate. However, Ossila assume no liability for the accuracy of this information. The values provided here are typical at the time of manufacture and may vary over time and from batch to batch.