High Performance Perovskite Precursor Ink (for Nitrogen Processing)

Order Code: I301
MSDS sheet


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Coming soon, Ossila's newest perovskite ink, I301, is capable of reaching 16.6% power conversion efficiency! Designed to achieve the best performances, our new ink follows the latest work in literature to provide researchers with the materials to reach the highest power conversion efficiencies possible.


I301 perovskite ink has been formulated in conjunction with research partners for obtaining the highest possible PCEs. Our I301 perovskite ink is designed for processing inside controlled environments such as a nitrogen-filled glovebox.

Using a double-cation mixture, Ossila's I301 ink contains a combination of formamidinium iodide (FAI), lead iodide (PbI), methyl ammonium bromide (MABr), and lead bromide (PbBr) dissolved in a mixture of dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

After undergoing conversion through a combination of solvent quenching and thermal annealing steps, the precursor will convert to the final perovskite phase. The final product is a mixed-cation perovskite with the chemical formula (CH(NH2)2Pbl3)0.85(CH3NH3PbBr3)0.15. For information on the various application of this mixed-cation perovskite see our applications section.

The main use of I301 is in the fabrication of solar cells. Our I301 ink can currently only be used in standard architectures and can achieve power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of up to 16.6% (see our device performance section for more information). The ink specifications can be found below along with complete guides on the processing of perovskite inks for standard architecture. Using our provided I301 recipe, 5 ml of solution is capable of processing up to 100 substrates (800 devices using our 8-pixel substrate design).


Perovskite Ink
I301 is packaged as 10 individual vials containing 0.5 ml of solution each, capable of coating up to 100 substrates.


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I301 Perovskite Specifications

Perovskite type


Precursor materials (purity)

Formamidinium iodide (98%), lead iodide (99.999%), methyl ammonium bromide (98%), lead bromide (99.999%)

Precursor ratio

0.95 : 1.00 : 0.18 : 0.18

Solvent (purity)

Dimethyl formamide (99.8%), dimethyl sulfoxide (99.8%)

Solvent ratio


Optical bandgap

1.4 - 1.5 eV

Energy levels

Valence band maximum = 5.4 eV; Conduction band minimum = 3.9 eV

Emission peak

770 nm (PL)

Standard architecture PCE

16.6% Peak; 15.7% ± 0.79% Average

Processing conditions

Inert environment only (e.g. nitrogen or argon atmosphere)


10 x 0.5 ml sealed amber vials

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I301 Perovskite Applications

Perovskite Photovoltaics: I301 ink is the most advanced ink being used within perovskite research at the moment, with world record power conversion efficiencies of 20% being achieved with this formulation. Below is a selection of articles that have used similar formulations to I301 to achieve these record breaking devices. 

  • High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange. S. I. Seok et. al. Science. 348 (2015) 1234-1237 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa9272
  • Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells. S. I. Seok et. al. Nature 517 (2015) 476-480 DOI: 10.1038/nature14133
  • Highly efficient planar perovskite solar cells through band alignment engineering. A. Hagfeldt et. al. Energy Environ. Sci. 8 (2015) 2928-2934 DOI: 10.1039/C5EE02608C
  • Enhanced electronic properties in mesoporous TiO2via lithium doping for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. M. Graetzel et. al. Nature Communications. 7 (2016) 10379  doi:10.1038/ncomms10379

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I301 Perovskite Processing Guides

Standard Architecture: FTO/TiO2(Compact)/TiO2(Mesoporous)/I301/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au

Below is a condensed summary of our fabrication routine for standard architecture devices using our I301 ink.


  1. FTO etching:
  • A complete guide to FTO etching can be found on our FTO product page along with an instructional video
  1. Substrate cleaning:
  • Sonicate ITO for 5 minutes in hot (70°C) DI water with the addition of 1% Hellmanex
  • Dump-rinse twice in boiling DI water
  • Sonicate ITO for 5 minutes in isopropyl alcohol (IPA)
  • Dump-rinse twice in boiling DI water
  • Dry ITO using filtered compressed gas
  • Place the ITO into the UV Ozone cleaner and clean for 10 minutes
  1. Compact TiO2 deposition:
  • Prepare a solution of titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) at a volumetric percentage of 8% in IPA (approximately 20 ml will be needed)
  • Mask off the substrates such that only the active area of the devices are exposed
  • Place the substrates onto a hotplate set to 450°C
  • Using a nitrogen/compressed air gun set it to a pressure of 16-18 psi and spray the solution onto the substrates. Leave the solution for 30 seconds to dry and sinter.
  • Repeat the spray process until you have approximately 40nm of film; this should take around 10 spray steps
  • Cover the substrates loosely with foil and leave to sinter for 30 minutes
  • After sintering remove the substrates from the hotplate; care should be taken as rapid cooling can shatter the substrate
  1. Mesoporous TiO2 deposition:
  • Using a mesoporous paste with a particle size of 18 nm and pore size of 30 nm prepare a mesoporous film of approximately 200 nm thick
  • Place the substrates back on the hotplate, loosely cover with foil and sinter the substrates at 500°C for 1 hour
  • After sintering remove the substrates from the hotplate; care should be taken as rapid cooling can shatter the substrate
  1. Perovskite deposition (in glovebox):
  • Transfer the substrates into an inert environment glovebox
  • Place substrates inside the spin coater.
  • Dispense 50 μl of I301 ink onto the substrate. Spin the substrate at 1000 rpm for 5 s. After this initial spin step increase the speed to 6000 rpm over 5 s, 7 seconds into the 6000 rpm spin step dispense 110 μl of chlorobenzene to quench the perovskite and leave to spin for a further 15 s (the quenching should be done using a continuous stream of solvent over ~1 s)
  • Place substrate back onto the hotplate at 100°C for 90 minutes
  1. Spiro-OMeTAD deposition (in glovebox):
  • Prepare the following solutions: 
    • Spiro-OMeTADat a concentration of 97 mg/ml in chlorobenzene
    • Li-TFSI at a concentration of 175 mg/ml in acetonitrile
    • TBP at a volumetric percentage of 46.6% in acetonitrile
    • FK209 Co (III) TFSI at a concentration of 175 mg/ml in acetonitrile
  • Combine 1000 μl Spiro-OMeTAD, 30.2μl Li-TFSI, 9.7μl TBP solutions, 30.2μl of FK209 Co (III) TFSI
  • Dispense 50 µl of the combined solution onto the perovskite allowing it to spread across the substrate 
  • Spin at 2000 rpm for 30 seconds
  • Using tweezers scratch away the perovskite and spiro-OMeTAD layer where the conductive busbars are to be deposited (see multi electrode/busbar masks for information on the location of busbars)
  1. Spiro-OMeTAD oxidation and anode deposition:
  • Using thermal evaporation deposit an 80 nm layer of gold through a shadow mask to define an active area for your device (we recommend the use of Ossila's multi electrode/busbar mask for optimal device performance)
  • Remove devices from the glovebox, the spiro-OMeTAD layer will require further oxidation to achieve optimal device performance, this should be achieved after 12 hours of storage in air
  • Devices measured immediately after being taken out of the glovebox have a PCE 1% lower on average than devices left in air for 12 hours and can be up to 3% lower in extreme cases.

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I301 Device Performance

Standard Architecture Structure

Below is information on photovoltaic devices fabricated using our standard architecture recipe for I301 inks. All scans were taken under AM1.5 illumination sweeping the votlage from -1.2 V to 1.2 V then from 1.2 V to -1.2 V at a rate of 0.2 V.s-1, no bias soaking was performed on devices.

Sweep direction Forward Reverse
Power conversion efficiency (%) 15.1% 16.6%
Short circuit current (mA.cm-2) -22.3 -22.7
Open circuit voltage (V) 1.05 1.06
Fill factor (%) 64.6 69.3


I301 JV Sweep
JV curve under AM1.5 irradiation for a standard device based on Ossila's I301 ink. Device characteristics were recorded on a reverse sweep.


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To the best of our knowledge the technical information provided here is accurate. However, Ossila assume no liability for the accuracy of this information. The values provided here are typical at the time of manufacture and may vary over time and from batch to batch.