Black Phosphorus Small Crystals

Order Code: M2106B1
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Product Code Quantity Price
M2106B1 250 mg £369.2
M2106B1 500 mg £638.5
M2106B1 1 g £1021.5

General Information

CAS number 7723-14-0
Chemical formula P
Molecular weight 30.97 g/mol
Bandgap 0.3 eV ~ 1.5 eV
Classification / Family Phosphorus, Phosphorene, Elemental 2D semiconductor Materials, Nano-electronics, Nano-photonics

Product Details

Form Crystals
Preparation Synthetic - Chemical Vapour Transport (CVT)
Purity ≥ 99.999%
Structure Orthorhombic C
Electronic properties 2D semiconductor
Melting point 416 °C
Colour Black


General description 

Following the discovery of graphene, interest in 2D semiconducting materials has increased substantially. Monolayer (or few-layer) phosphorene is of particular interest due to its unique layered structure and thickness-dependent band-gap.

Unlike graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), phosphorene is an intrinsic p-type semiconductor that possesses a finite and direct band gap. Substantial anisotropy in transport behaviour in few-layer phosphorene has been observed along different directions of the 2D crystal lattice. Such anisotropic behaviour can be tuned by applying strain across the lattice.

black phosphorus small crystals

Black Phosphorus small crystals product image and structure.


  • Electronic devices and sensors: Phosphorene can be used in FETs as it has high charge-carrier mobility, high conductivity, and high on/off ratio.
  • Photovoltaics: Phosphorene can be used in solar cells. Energy conversion efficiencies as high as 20% have been predicted.
  • Thermoelectric applications: Phosphorene combines low thermal and high electrical conductivity.
  • Energy storage: Phosphorene combines significant, reversible charge-storage capacity with small volume change and good electrical conductivity.


Black phosphorus crystals are manufactured via chemical vapour transport (CVT). This method has been shown to produce crystals with a purity in excess of 99.999%.


Black phosphorus crystals can be used as a source for obtaining few-layer phosphorene via mechanical/liquid exfoliation. 

Further Information

More information on the properties, applications, processing and range of products available for black phosphorus (phosphorene) is described here

Literature and Reviews

  1. Strain-Engineering the Anisotropic Electrical Conductance of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus, R. Fei et al., Nano Lett., 14 (5), 2884–2889 (2014); DOI: 10.1021/nl500935z.
  2. Layer-dependent Band Alignment and Work Function of Few-Layer Phosphorene, Y. Cai et al., Sci. Rep., 4 : 6677 (2014); DOI: 10.1038/srep06677.
  3. Visualizing Optical Phase Anisotropy in Black Phosphorus, S. Lan et al., ACS Photonics, 3 (7), 1176–1181 (2016); DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00320.
  4. Recent advances in synthesis, properties, and applications of phosphorene, M. Akhtar1 et al., NPJ 2D Mater. Appl., 1, 5 (2017).
  5. Black Phosphorus: Narrow Gap, Wide Applications, A. Castellanos-Gomez, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 6, 4280−4291 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01686.