Black Phosphorus Small Crystals
|Molecular weight||30.97 g/mol|
|Bandgap||0.3 eV ~ 1.5 eV|
|Classification / Family||Phosphorus, Phosphorene, Elemental 2D semiconductor Materials, Nano-electronics, Nano-photonics|
|Preparation||Synthetic - Chemical Vapour Transport (CVT)|
|Electronic properties||2D semiconductor|
|Melting point||416 °C|
Following the discovery of graphene, interest in 2D semiconducting materials has increased substantially. Monolayer (or few-layer) phosphorene is of particular interest due to its unique layered structure and thickness-dependent band-gap.
Unlike graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), phosphorene is an intrinsic p-type semiconductor that possesses a finite and direct band gap. Substantial anisotropy in transport behaviour in few-layer phosphorene has been observed along different directions of the 2D crystal lattice. Such anisotropic behaviour can be tuned by applying strain across the lattice.
- Electronic devices and sensors: Phosphorene can be used in FETs as it has high charge-carrier mobility, high conductivity, and high on/off ratio.
- Photovoltaics: Phosphorene can be used in solar cells. Energy conversion efficiencies as high as 20% have been predicted.
- Thermoelectric applications: Phosphorene combines low thermal and high electrical conductivity.
- Energy storage: Phosphorene combines significant, reversible charge-storage capacity with small volume change and good electrical conductivity.
Black phosphorus crystals are manufactured via chemical vapour transport (CVT). This method has been shown to produce crystals with a purity in excess of 99.999%.
Black phosphorus crystals can be used as a source for obtaining few-layer phosphorene via mechanical/liquid exfoliation.
Literature and Reviews
- Strain-Engineering the Anisotropic Electrical Conductance of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus, R. Fei et al., Nano Lett., 14 (5), 2884–2889 (2014); DOI: 10.1021/nl500935z.
- Layer-dependent Band Alignment and Work Function of Few-Layer Phosphorene, Y. Cai et al., Sci. Rep., 4 : 6677 (2014); DOI: 10.1038/srep06677.
- Visualizing Optical Phase Anisotropy in Black Phosphorus, S. Lan et al., ACS Photonics, 3 (7), 1176–1181 (2016); DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00320.
- Recent advances in synthesis, properties, and applications of phosphorene, M. Akhtar1 et al., NPJ 2D Mater. Appl., 1, 5 (2017).
- Black Phosphorus: Narrow Gap, Wide Applications, A. Castellanos-Gomez, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 6, 4280−4291 (2015); DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01686.