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Bathophenanthroline, HBL material
Used to enable ohmic contact to any electrode when doped with Lithium
BPhen is widely used as a hole-blocking or exciton-blocking layer due to its wide energy gap and high ionisation potential.
The phenanthroline unit is small, rigid, and planar, with extended π-electrons and short hopping lengths that facilitate electron mobility. The electron mobility of BPhen is about 5 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is about two orders of magnitude higher than that of Alq3.
When doped with lithium, BPhen:Li is an excellent electron-transport material, and is often used as an electron-injection layer to enable ohmic contact to any electrode -- without the need to consider the work function alignments.
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Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes using dual emissive layers with host-dopant system, B. Lee et al., J. Photon. Energy. 3(1), 033598 (2013), doi:10.1117/1.JPE.3.033598.
Very low turn-on voltage and high brightness tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminumbased organic light-emitting diodes with a MoOx p-doping layer, G. Xie et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 093305 (2008); doi: 10.1063/1.2890490.
Enhancing Color Purity and Stable Efficiency of White Organic Light Diodes by Using Hole-Blocking Layer, C-J. Huang et al., J. Nanomater., 2014; dio: 10.1155/2014/915894.
Efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on a balanced split of the exciton-recombination zone using a graded mixed layer as an electron-blocking layer, C. K. Kim et al., J. Soc. Info. Display, 18 (1), 97-102 (2012).
High efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using BCzVBi as blue fluorescent dopant, Y. Kim et al., J Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 8(9), 4579-83 (2008).
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