Used to enable ohmic contact to any electrode when doped with Lithium
BPhen is widely used as a hole-blocking or exciton-blocking layer due to its wide energy gap and high ionisation potential.
The phenanthroline unit is small, rigid, and planar, with extended π-electrons and short hopping lengths that facilitate electron mobility. The electron mobility of BPhen is about 5 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is about two orders of magnitude higher than that of Alq3.
When doped with lithium, BPhen:Li is an excellent electron-transport material, and is often used as an electron-injection layer to enable ohmic contact to any electrode -- without the need to consider the work function alignments.
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