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BPhen is widely used as a hole-blocking or exciton-blocking layer due to its wide energy gap and high ionisation potential.
The phenanthroline unit is small, rigid, and planar, with extended π-electrons and short hopping lengths that facilitate electron mobility. The electron mobility of BPhen is about 5 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is about two orders of magnitude higher than that of Alq3.
When doped with lithium, BPhen:Li is an excellent electron-transport material, and is often used as an electron-injection layer to enable ohmic contact to any electrode -- without the need to consider the work function alignments.
Highly Power Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a p-Doping Layer, C-C. Chang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 253504 (2006); doi: 10.1063/1.2405856.
Pure White Organic Light-Emitting Diode with Lifetime Approaching the Longevity of Yellow Emitter, J-H. Jou et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3, 3134–3139 (2011). dx.doi.org/10.1021/am2006383.
Exceedingly efficient deep-blue electroluminescence from new anthracenes obtained using rational molecular design, S-K. Kim et al., J. Mater. Chem., 18, 3376–3384 (2008). DOI: 10.1039/B805062G.
Highly efficient and color-stable white organic light-emitting diode based on a novel blue phosphorescent host, Q. Wu et al., Syn. Metals 187, 160– 164 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2013.11.010.
Effect of bulk and planar heterojunctions based charge generation layers on the performance of tandem organic light-emitting diodes, Z. Ma et al., Org. Electronics, 30, 136-142 (2016). doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2015.12.020
Homoleptic Cyclometalated Iridium Complexes with Highly Efficient Red Phosphorescence and Application to Organic Light-Emitting Diode, A. Tsuboyama et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 12971-12979 (2003). DOI: 10.1021/ja034732d.
Novel organic electron injection layer for efficient and stable organic light emitting diodes, R. Grover et al., J. Luminescence, 146, 53–56 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlumin.2013.09.004.
Light outcoupling efficiency enhancement in organic light emitting diodes using an organic scattering layer, R. Grover et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 8 (1), 81–85 (2014). DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201308133.
Highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes using dual emissive layers with host-dopant system, B. Lee et al., J. Photon. Energy. 3(1), 033598 (2013), doi:10.1117/1.JPE.3.033598.
Very low turn-on voltage and high brightness tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminumbased organic light-emitting diodes with a MoOx p-doping layer, G. Xie et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 093305 (2008); doi: 10.1063/1.2890490.
Enhancing Color Purity and Stable Efficiency of White Organic Light Diodes by Using Hole-Blocking Layer, C-J. Huang et al., J. Nanomater., 2014; dio: 10.1155/2014/915894.
Efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on a balanced split of the exciton-recombination zone using a graded mixed layer as an electron-blocking layer, C. K. Kim et al., J. Soc. Info. Display, 18 (1), 97-102 (2012).
High efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using BCzVBi as blue fluorescent dopant, Y. Kim et al., J Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 8(9), 4579-83 (2008).
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